There was no evidence of a tumorigenic effect when lisinopril was administered for 105 weeks to male and female rats at doses up to 90 mg per kg per day (about 56 or 9 times* the maximum recommended daily human dose, based on body weight and body surface area, respectively). There was no evidence of carcinogenicity when lisinopril was administered for 92 weeks to (male and female) mice at doses up to 135 mg per kg per day (about 84 times* the maximum recommended daily human dose). This dose was 6.8 times the maximum human dose based on body surface area in mice.
Lisinopril was not mutagenic in the Ames microbial mutagen test with or without metabolic activation. It was also negative in a forward mutation assay using Chinese hamster lung cells. Lisinopril did not produce single strand DNA breaks in an in vitro alkaline elution rat hepatocyte assay. In addition, lisinopril did not produce increases in chromosomal aberrations in an in vitro test in Chinese hamster ovary cells or in an in vivo study in mouse bone marrow.
There were no adverse effects on reproductive performance in male and female rats treated with up to 300 mg per kg per day of lisinopril. This dose is 188 times and 30 times the maximum human dose when based on mg/kg and mg/m2 , respectively.
Studies in rats indicate that lisinopril crosses the blood brain barrier poorly. Multiple doses of lisinopril in rats do not result in accumulation in any tissues. Milk of lactating rats contains radioactivity following administration of 14 C lisinopril. By whole body autoradiography, radioactivity was found in the placenta following administration of labeled drug to pregnant rats, but none was found in the fetuses.
*Calculations assume a human weight of 50 kg and human body surface area of 1.62 m2.
Two dose-response studies utilizing a once-daily regimen were conducted in 438 mild to moderate hypertensive patients not on a diuretic. Blood pressure was measured 24 hours after dosing. An antihypertensive effect of lisinopril was seen with 5 mg of lisinopril in some patients. However, in both studies blood pressure reduction occurred sooner and was greater in patients treated with 10, 20 or 80 mg of lisinopril than patients treated with 5 mg of lisinopril.
In controlled clinical studies of patients with mild to moderate hypertension, patients were treated with lisinopril 20-80 mg daily, hydrochlorothiazide 12.5-50 mg daily or atenolol 50‑200 mg daily; and in other studies of patients with moderate to severe hypertension, patients were treated with lisinopril 20-80 mg daily or metoprolol 100-200 mg daily. Lisinopril demonstrated superior reductions of systolic and diastolic compared to hydrochlorothiazide in a population that was 75% Caucasian. Lisinopril was approximately equivalent to atenolol and metoprolol in reducing diastolic blood pressure, and had somewhat greater effects on systolic blood pressure.
Lisinopril had similar blood pressure reductions and adverse effects in younger and older (> 65 years) patients. It was less effective in reducing blood pressure in Blacks than in Caucasians.
In hemodynamic studies of lisinopril in patients with essential hypertension, blood pressure reduction was accompanied by a reduction in peripheral arterial resistance with little or no change in cardiac output and in heart rate. In a study in nine hypertensive patients, following administration of lisinopril, there was an increase in mean renal blood flow that was not significant. Data from several small studies are inconsistent with respect to the effect of lisinopril on glomerular filtration rate in hypertensive patients with normal renal function, but suggest that changes, if any, are not large.
In patients with renovascular hypertension lisinopril has been shown to be well-tolerated and effective in reducing blood pressure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Pediatric Patients: In a clinical study involving 115 hypertensive pediatric patients 6 to 16 years of age, patients who weighed < 50 kg received either 0.625, 2.5 or 20 mg of lisinopril once daily and patients who weighed ≥ 50 kg received either 1.25, 5, or 40 mg of lisinopril once daily. At the end of 2 weeks, lisinopril lowered trough blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner with antihypertensive efficacy demonstrated at doses > 1.25 mg (0.02 mg per kg). This effect was confirmed in a randomized withdrawal phase, where the diastolic pressure rose by about 9 mmHg more in patients randomized to placebo than compared to patients who remained on the middle and high doses of lisinopril. The dose-dependent antihypertensive effect of lisinopril was consistent across several demographic subgroups: age, Tanner stage, gender, and race. In this study, lisinopril was generally well-tolerated.
In the above pediatric study, lisinopril was given either as tablets or in a suspension for those children who were unable to swallow tablets or who required a lower dose than is available in tablet form.
Two placebo controlled, 12-week clinical studies compared the addition of lisinopril up to 20 mg daily to digitalis and diuretics alone. The combination of lisinopril, digitalis and diuretics reduced the following signs and symptoms of heart failure: edema, rales, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea and jugular venous distention. In one of the studies, the combination of lisinopril, digitalis and diuretics reduced orthopnea, presence of third heart sound and the number of patients classified as NYHA Class III and IV; and improved exercise tolerance. A large (over 3000 patients) survival study, the ATLAS Trial, comparing 2.5 and 35 mg of lisinopril in patients with systolic heart failure, showed that the higher dose of lisinopril had outcomes at least as favorable as the lower dose.
During baseline-controlled clinical trials, in patients with systolic heart failure receiving digitalis and diuretics, single doses of lisinopril resulted in decreases in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, systemic vascular resistance and blood pressure accompanied by an increase in cardiac output and no change in heart rate.
The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvienza nell’Infarto Miocardico (GISSI-3) study was a multicenter, controlled, randomized, unblinded clinical trial conducted in 19,394 patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) admitted to a coronary care unit. It was designed to examine the effects of short-term (6 week) treatment with lisinopril, nitrates, their combination, or no therapy on short-term (6 week) mortality and on long-term death and markedly impaired cardiac function. Hemodynamically-stable patients presenting within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms were randomized, in a 2 x 2 factorial design, to six weeks of either 1) lisinopril alone (n=4841), 2) nitrates alone (n=4869), 3) lisinopril plus nitrates (n=4841), or 4) open control (n=4843). All patients received routine therapies, including thrombolytics (72%), aspirin (84%), and a beta blocker (31%), as appropriate, normally utilized in acute myocardial infarction (MI) patients.
The protocol excluded patients with hypotension (systolic blood pressure ≤ 100 mmHg), severe heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and renal dysfunction (serum creatinine > 2 mg per dL and/or proteinuria > 500 mg per 24 h). Patients randomized to lisinopril received 5 mg within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms, 5 mg after 24 hours, and then 10 mg daily thereafter. Patients with systolic blood pressure less than 120 mmHg at baseline received 2.5 mg of lisinopril. If hypotension occurred, the lisinopril dose was reduced or if severe hypotension occurred lisinopril was stopped [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
The primary outcomes of the trial were the overall mortality at 6 weeks and a combined end point at 6 months after the myocardial infarction, consisting of the number of patients who died, had late (day 4) clinical congestive heart failure, or had extensive left ventricular damage defined as ejection fraction ≤ 35% or an akinetic-dyskinetic [A-D] score ≥ 45%. Patients receiving lisinopril (n=9646), alone or with nitrates, had an 11% lower risk of death (p = 0.04) compared to patients who did not receive lisinopril (n=9672) (6.4% vs. 7.2%, respectively) at six weeks. Although patients randomized to receive lisinopril for up to six weeks also fared numerically better on the combined end point at 6 months, the open nature of the assessment of heart failure, substantial loss to follow-up echocardiography, and substantial excess use of lisinopril between 6 weeks and 6 months in the group randomized to 6 weeks of lisinopril, preclude any conclusion about this end point.
Patients with acute myocardial infarction, treated with lisinopril, had a higher (9.0% versus 3.7%) incidence of persistent hypotension (systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg for more than 1 hour) and renal dysfunction (2.4% versus 1.1%) in-hospital and at six weeks (increasing creatinine concentration to over 3 mg per dL or a doubling or more of the baseline serum creatinine concentration) [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
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