QNASL (Page 4 of 8)

10 OVERDOSAGE

Chronic overdosage may result in signs/symptoms of hypercorticism [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. There are no data available on the effects of acute or chronic overdosage with QNASL Nasal Aerosol.

11 DESCRIPTION

Beclomethasone dipropionate USP, the active component of QNASL Nasal Aerosol, is an anti-inflammatory steroid having the chemical name 9-chloro-11β,17,21-trihydroxy-16β-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione 17, 21-dipropionate and the following chemical structure:

Chemical structure.

Beclomethasone dipropionate, a di-ester of beclomethasone (a synthetic corticosteroid chemically related to dexamethasone), is a white to almost white, odorless powder with a molecular formula of C28 H37 ClO7 and a molecular weight of 521.1. It is practically insoluble in water, very soluble in chloroform, and soluble in acetone and in dehydrated alcohol.

QNASL Nasal Aerosol is a pressurized, nonaqueous solution in a metered-dose aerosol device intended ONLY for intranasal use. It contains a solution of beclomethasone dipropionate in propellant HFA‑134a (1,1,1,2‑tetrafluoroethane) and dehydrated ethanol. QNASL 40 mcg Nasal Aerosol delivers 40 mcg of beclomethasone dipropionate from the nasal actuator and 50 mcg from the valve. QNASL 80 mcg Nasal Aerosol delivers 80 mcg of beclomethasone dipropionate from the nasal actuator and 100 mcg from the valve. Each strength delivers 59 mg of solution from the valve with each actuation. Each QNASL 80 mcg Nasal Aerosol canister contains 10.6 g of drug and excipients and provides 120 actuations. Each QNASL 40 mcg Nasal Aerosol canister contains 6.8 g of drug and excipients and provides 60 actuations.

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Beclomethasone dipropionate is a prodrug that is extensively converted to the active metabolite, beclomethasone-17-monopropionate. The precise mechanism through which beclomethasone dipropionate affects rhinitis symptoms is unknown. Corticosteroids have been shown to have multiple anti-inflammatory effects, inhibiting both inflammatory cells (e.g., mast cells, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils) and the release of inflammatory mediators (e.g., histamine, eicosanoids, leukotrienes, and cytokines).

Beclomethasone-17-monopropionate has been shown in vitro to exhibit a binding affinity for the human glucocorticoid receptor which is approximately 13 times that of dexamethasone, 6 times that of triamcinolone acetonide, 1.5 times that of budesonide and 25 times that of beclomethasone dipropionate. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown.

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

Adrenal Function: The effects of QNASL Nasal Aerosol on the HPA axis were evaluated in two 6-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group perennial allergic rhinitis trials – one in adult and adolescent patients 12 to 45 years of age and another in children 6 to 11 years of age. In the first study with adolescent and adult patients aged 12 to 45, QNASL Nasal Aerosol 320 mcg, once daily, was compared with both placebo nasal aerosol and a positive control (a placebo/prednisone group that received prednisone 10 mg orally once daily for the final 7 days of the treatment period). In the second study with pediatric patients aged 6 to 11, QNASL Nasal Aerosol 80 mcg once daily was compared to placebo nasal aerosol. HPA-axis function was assessed by 24-hour serial serum cortisol levels prior to the first dose and after 6 weeks of treatment. Patients were domiciled for the 24-hour serum cortisol assessments. The change from baseline in the 24-hour serum cortisol weighted mean for QNASL Nasal Aerosol and placebo after 6 weeks of treatment were compared.

In the HPA–axis study in patients 12 to 45 years of age, baseline geometric mean serum cortisol weighted mean values were similar in the QNASL Nasal Aerosol 320 mcg/day and placebo treatment groups (9.04 and 8.45 mcg/dL, respectively). After 6 weeks of treatment, the geometric mean values were 8.18 and 8.01 mcg/dL, respectively, with a change from baseline in 24-hour serum cortisol weighted mean for the QNASL Nasal Aerosol and placebo groups of 0.86 and 0.44, resulting in a difference of 0.42. The geometric mean ratio for QNASL Nasal Aerosol 320 mcg/day to placebo was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.06). For comparison, in the positive-control (prednisone) treatment group, the geometric mean ratio for placebo to placebo/prednisone 10 mg/day was 3.17 (95% CI: 2.68, 3.74).

In the HPA-axis study in patients 6 to 11 years of age, baseline geometric mean serum cortisol weighted mean values were similar in the QNASL Nasal Aerosol 80 mcg/day and placebo treatment groups (5.97 and 6.47 mcg/dL, respectively). After 6 weeks of treatment the geometric mean values were 6.19 and 7.13 mcg/dL, respectively with no decrease from baseline values in both treatment groups. The geometric mean ratio for QNASL Nasal Aerosol 80 mcg/day to placebo was 0.91 (95% CI; 0.81, 1.03).

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Following intranasal administration, most of the beclomethasone dipropionate undergoes extensive conversion to its active metabolite, beclomethasone-17-monopropionate, during absorption. Plasma concentrations of beclomethasone dipropionate and beclomethasone-17-monopropionate have been measured with QNASL Nasal Aerosol in 2 adult and/or adolescent clinical trials and 1 pediatric clinical trial.

The single-dose pharmacokinetics of QNASL Nasal Aerosol were evaluated in a randomized, open-label, 3-period, crossover trial in healthy adult volunteers. Systemic levels of beclomethasone-17-monopropionate and beclomethasone dipropionate after single-dose intranasal administration of beclomethasone dipropionate at doses of 80 and 320 mcg were compared with the systemic levels of beclomethasone-17-monopropionate and beclomethasone dipropionate after administration of orally inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate HFA at a dose of 320 mcg (QVAR® Inhalation Aerosol). The results of this trial demonstrated that the systemic bioavailability of QNASL Nasal Aerosol 320 mcg was approximately 27.5% (approximately 4-fold lower) of that of orally inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate HFA 320 mcg/day based on the plasma concentrations of beclomethasone-17-monopropionate (AUClast : 1139.7 vs 4140.3 hr*pg/mL; GMR: 0.275; 90% CI for the GMR: 0.214, 0.354). The peak exposure to QNASL Nasal Aerosol 320 mcg/day was approximately 19.5% (approximately 5-fold lower) of that of orally inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate HFA 320 mcg/day as measured by beclomethasone-17-monopropionate (Cmax : 262.7 vs 1343.7 pg/mL; GMR: 0.195; 90% CI for the GMR: 0.158, 0.241).

Following repeated once-daily administration of QNASL Nasal Aerosol, there was no accumulation or increase in plasma exposure to beclomethasone-17-monopropionate or beclomethasone dipropionate, most likely due to the short plasma half-life relative to the dosing frequency.

Distribution

The in vitro protein binding for beclomethasone-17-monopropionate was reported to be 94% to 96% over the concentration range of 1000 to 5000 pg/mL. The volume of distribution at steady state for beclomethasone dipropionate is moderate (20 L) but more extensive for beclomethasone-17-monopropionate (424 L).

Metabolism

Beclomethasone dipropionate undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism, forming three metabolites via CYP3A4, beclomethasone-17-monopropionate, beclomethasone-21-monopropionate, and beclomethasone. Beclomethasone-17-monopropionate is the major and most active metabolite.

Elimination

The major route of elimination of inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate appears to be via metabolism. More than 90% of inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate is found as beclomethasone-17-monopropionate in the systemic circulation. The mean elimination half-life of beclomethasone-17-monopropionate is 2.8 hours. The terminal elimination half-lives of beclomethasone dipropionate and beclomethasone-17-monopropionate following intranasal dosing with QNASL Nasal Aerosol (320 mcg) were approximately 0.3 hours and 4.5 hours, respectively. Irrespective of the route of administration (injection, oral, or inhalation), beclomethasone dipropionate and its metabolites are mainly excreted in the feces. Less than 10% of the drug and its metabolites are excreted in the urine. It is likely that intranasal beclomethasone dipropionate follows a similar elimination pathway.

Special Populations

Formal pharmacokinetic studies using QNASL Nasal Aerosol were not conducted in any special populations.

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

The carcinogenicity of beclomethasone dipropionate was evaluated in rats which were exposed for a total of 95 weeks: 13 weeks at inhalation doses up to 0.4 mg/kg/day and the remaining 82 weeks at combined oral and inhalation doses up to 2.4 mg/kg/day. There was no evidence of treatment-related increases in the incidence of tumors in this study at the highest dose, which is approximately 75 and 130 times the MRHD in adults and children, respectively, on a mg/m2 basis.

Beclomethasone dipropionate did not induce gene mutation in bacterial cells or mammalian Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in vitro. No significant clastogenic effect was seen in cultured CHO cells in vitro or in the mouse micronucleus test in vivo.

In rats, beclomethasone dipropionate caused decreased conception rates at an oral dose of 16 mg/kg/day (approximately 500 times the MRHD in adults on a mg/m2 basis). Impairment of fertility, as evidenced by inhibition of the estrous cycle in dogs was observed following treatment by the oral route at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day (approximately 50 times the MRHD in adults on a mg/m2 basis). No inhibition of the estrous cycle in dogs was seen following 12 months of exposure to beclomethasone dipropionate by the inhalation route at an estimated daily dose of 0.33 mg/kg (approximately 35 times the MRHD in adults on a mg/m2 basis).

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