In adults, symptomatic response to therapy with rabeprazole sodium delayed-release tablets does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy. Consider additional follow-up and diagnostic testing in adult patients who have a suboptimal response or an early symptomatic relapse after completing treatment with a PPI.
Steady state interactions of rabeprazole and warfarin have not been adequately evaluated in patients. There have been reports of increased INR and prothrombin time in patients receiving a proton pump inhibitor and warfarin concomitantly. Increases in INR and prothrombin time may lead to abnormal bleeding and even death. Patients treated with rabeprazole sodium delayed-release tablets and warfarin concomitantly may need to be monitored for increases in INR and prothrombin time [see Drug Interactions (7)] .
Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) has been observed in patients taking PPIs and may occur at any point during PPI therapy. Patients may present with varying signs and symptoms from symptomatic hypersensitivity reactions, to non-specific symptoms of decreased renal function (e.g., malaise, nausea, anorexia). In reported case series, some patients were diagnosed on biopsy and in the absence of extra-renal manifestations (e.g., fever, rash or arthralgia).
Discontinue rabeprazole sodium delayed-release tablets and evaluate patients with suspected acute TIN [see Contraindication (4)].
Published observational studies suggest that PPI therapy like rabeprazole sodium delayed-release tablets may be associated with an increased risk of
Clostridium difficile -associated diarrhea, especially in hospitalized patients. This diagnosis should be considered for diarrhea that does not improve
[see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated.
Clostridium difficile- associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents. For more information specific to antibacterial agents (clarithromycin and amoxicillin) indicated for use in combination with rabeprazole sodium delayed-release tablets, refer to Warnings and Precautions sections of the corresponding prescribing information.
Several published observational studies in adults suggest that PPI therapy may be associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis-related fractures of the hip, wrist, or spine. The risk of fracture was increased in patients who received high-dose, defined as multiple daily doses, and long-term PPI therapy (a year or longer). Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated. Patients at risk for osteoporosis-related fractures should be managed according to established treatment guidelines [see Dosage and Administration (2), Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
Severe cutaneous adverse reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) have been reported in association with the use of PPIs [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)] . Discontinue rabeprazole at first signs or symptoms of severe cutaneous adverse reactions or other signs of hypersensitivity and consider further evaluation.
Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been reported in patients taking PPIs, including rabeprazole. These events have occurred as both new onset and an exacerbation of existing autoimmune disease. The majority of PPI-induced lupus erythematosus cases were CLE.
The most common form of CLE reported in patients treated with PPIs was subacute CLE (SCLE) and occurred within weeks to years after continuous drug therapy in patients ranging from infants to the elderly. Generally, histological findings were observed without organ involvement.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is less commonly reported than CLE in patients receiving PPIs. PPI associated SLE is usually milder than non-drug induced SLE. Onset of SLE typically occurred within days to years after initiating treatment primarily in patients ranging from young adults to the elderly. The majority of patients presented with rash; however, arthralgia and cytopenia were also reported. Avoid administration of PPIs for longer than medically indicated. If signs or symptoms consistent with CLE or SLE are noted in patients receiving rabeprazole sodium delayed-release tablets, discontinue the drug and refer the patient to the appropriate specialist for evaluation. Most patients improve with discontinuation of the PPI alone in 4 to 12 weeks. Serological testing (e.g., ANA) may be positive and elevated serological test results may take longer to resolve than clinical manifestations.
Daily treatment with any acid-suppressing medications over a long period of time (e.g., longer than 3 years) may lead to malabsorption of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B-12) caused by hypo- or achlorhydria. Rare reports of cyanocobalamin deficiency occurring with acid-suppressing therapy have been reported in the literature. This diagnosis should be considered if clinical symptoms consistent with cyanocobalamin deficiency are observed in patients treated with rabeprazole sodium delayed-release tablets.
Hypomagnesemia, symptomatic and asymptomatic, has been reported rarely in patients treated with PPIs for at least three months, in most cases after a year of therapy. Serious adverse events include tetany, arrhythmias, and seizures. Hypomagnesemia may lead to hypocalcemia and/or hypokalemia and may exacerbate underlying hypocalcemia in at-risk patients. In most patients, treatment of hypomagnesemia required magnesium replacement and discontinuation of the PPI.
For patients expected to be on prolonged treatment or who take PPIs with medications such as digoxin or drugs that may cause hypomagnesemia (e.g., diuretics), health care professionals may consider monitoring magnesium levels prior to initiation of PPI treatment and periodically [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)] .
Consider monitoring magnesium and calcium levels prior to initiation of rabeprazole and periodically while on treatment in patients with a preexisting risk of hypocalcemia (e.g., hypoparathyroidism). Supplement with magnesium and/or calcium as necessary. If hypocalcemia is refractory to treatment, consider discontinuing the PPI.
Literature suggests that concomitant use of PPIs with methotrexate (primarily at high dose; see methotrexate prescribing information) may elevate and prolong serum concentrations of methotrexate and/or its metabolite, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. In high-dose methotrexate administration, a temporary withdrawal of the PPI may be considered in some patients [see Drug Interactions (7)] .
PPI use is associated with an increased risk of fundic gland polyps that increases with long-term use, especially beyond one year. Most PPI users who developed fundic gland polyps were asymptomatic and fundic gland polyps were identified incidentally on endoscopy. Use the shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated.
The following serious adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in labeling:
- Acute Tubulointerstitial Nephritis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
- Clostridium difficile- Associated Diarrhea [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
- Bone Fracture [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
- Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
- Cutaneous and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
- Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B-12) Deficiency [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]
- Hypomagnesemia and Mineral Metabolism [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]
- Fundic Gland Polyps [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)]
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