RAMIPRIL- ramipril capsule
Ramipril capsules are indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including this drug.
Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than one drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC).
Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly.
Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal.
Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy.
Ramipril capsules may be used alone or in combination with thiazide diuretics.
Ramipril capsules are indicated in stable patients who have demonstrated clinical signs of congestive heart failure within the first few days after sustaining acute myocardial infarction. Administration of ramipril capsules to such patients have been shown to decrease the risk of death (principally cardiovascular death) and to decrease the risks of failure-related hospitalization and progression to severe/resistant heart failure [see Clinical Studies (14.3)].
The recommended initial dose for patients not receiving a diuretic is 2.5 mg once a day. Adjust dose according to blood pressure response. The usual maintenance dosage range is 2.5 mg to 20 mg per day administered as a single dose or in two equally divided doses. In some patients treated once daily, the antihypertensive effect may diminish toward the end of the dosing interval. In such patients, consider an increase in dosage or twice daily administration. If blood pressure is not controlled with ramipril capsules alone, a diuretic can be added.
For the treatment of post-myocardial infarction patients who have shown signs of congestive heart failure, the recommended starting dose of ramipril capsules is 2.5 mg twice daily (5 mg per day). A patient who becomes hypotensive at this dose may be switched to 1.25 mg twice daily. After one week at the starting dose, increase dose (if tolerated) toward a target dose of 5 mg twice daily, with dosage increases being about 3 weeks apart.
After the initial dose of ramipril capsules, observe the patient under medical supervision for at least two hours and until blood pressure has stabilized for at least an additional hour. If possible, reduce the dose of any concomitant diuretic as this may diminish the likelihood of hypotension. The appearance of hypotension after the initial dose of ramipril capsules does not preclude subsequent careful dose titration with the drug, following effective management of the hypotension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5), Drug Interactions (7.1)].
Generally, swallow ramipril capsules whole. The ramipril capsule can also be opened and the contents sprinkled on a small amount (about 4 oz.) of applesauce or mixed in 4 oz. (120 mL) of water or apple juice. To be sure that ramipril is not lost when such a mixture is used, consume the mixture in its entirety. The described mixtures can be pre-prepared and stored for up to 24 hours at room temperature or up to 48 hours under refrigeration.
Concomitant administration of ramipril capsules with potassium supplements, potassium salt substitutes, or potassium-sparing diuretics can lead to increases of serum potassium [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)].
Establish baseline renal function in patients initiating ramipril capsules. Usual regimens of therapy with ramipril capsules may be followed in patients with estimated creatinine clearance >40 mL/min. However, in patients with worse impairment, 25% of the usual dose of ramipril is expected to produce full therapeutic levels of ramiprilat [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].
For patients with hypertension and renal impairment, the recommended initial dose is 1.25 mg ramipril capsules once daily. Dosage may be titrated upward until blood pressure is controlled or to a maximum total daily dose of 5 mg.
Heart Failure Post-Myocardial Infarction
For patients with heart failure and renal impairment, the recommended initial dose is 1.25 mg ramipril capsules once daily. The dose may be increased to 1.25 mg twice daily, and up to a maximum dose of 2.5 mg twice daily depending on clinical response and tolerability.
Volume Depletion or Renal Artery Stenosis
Blood pressure decreases associated with any dose of ramipril capsules depend, in part, on the presence or absence of volume depletion (e.g., past and current diuretic use) or the presence or absence of renal artery stenosis. If such circumstances are suspected to be present, initiate dosing at 1.25 mg once daily. Adjust dosage according to blood pressure response.
Ramipril is supplied as hard gelatin capsules containing 1.25 mg, 2.5 mg, 5 mg, and 10 mg of ramipril.
Ramipril Capsules USP, 1.25 mg are yellow/yellow size ‘4’ hard gelatin capsules imprinted with ‘D’ on yellow cap and ‘05’ on yellow body with black edible ink filled with white to almost white powder.
Ramipril Capsules USP, 2.5 mg are orange/orange size ‘4’ hard gelatin capsules imprinted with ‘D’ on orange cap and ‘06’ on orange body with black edible ink filled with white to almost white powder.
Ramipril Capsules USP, 5 mg are red/red size ‘4’ hard gelatin capsules imprinted with ‘D’ on red cap and ‘07’ on red body with black edible ink filled with white to almost white powder.
Ramipril Capsules USP, 10 mg are blue/blue size ‘4’ hard gelatin capsules imprinted with ‘D’ on blue cap and ‘08’ on blue body with black edible ink filled with white to almost white powder.
Ramipril capsules are contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to this product or any other ACE inhibitor (e.g., a patient who has experienced angioedema during therapy with any other ACE inhibitor).
Ramipril capsules are contraindicated in combination with a neprilysin inhibitor (e.g., sacubitril). Do not administer ramipril capsules within 36 hours of switching to or from sacubitril/valsartan, a neprilysin inhibitor [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Do not co-administer ramipril capsules with aliskiren:
• in patients with diabetes
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