RAMIPRIL

RAMIPRIL- ramipril capsule
DirectRX

BOXED WARNING SECTION

  • WARNING: FETAL TOXICITY•When pregnancy is detected, discontinue ramipril as soon as possible ( 5.6).•Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus ( 5.6).

INDICATIONS & USAGE SECTION

  • 1.1 Hypertension

    Ramipril capsules are indicated for the treatment of hypertension. They may be used alone or in combination with thiazide diuretics.

    1.3 Heart Failure Post-Myocardial Infarction

    Ramipril capsules are indicated in stable patients who have demonstrated clinical signs of congestive heart failure within the first few days after sustaining acute myocardial infarction. Administration of ramipril capsules to such patients has been shown to decrease the risk of death (principally cardiovascular death) and to decrease the risks of failure-related hospitalization and progression to severe/resistant heart failure [see Clinical Studies ( 14.3)].

DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION SECTION

  • 2.1 Hypertension

    The recommended initial dose for patients not receiving a diuretic is 2.5 mg once a day. Adjust dose according to blood pressure response. The usual maintenance dosage range is 2.5 mg to 20 mg per day administered as a single dose or in two equally divided doses. In some patients treated once daily, the antihypertensive effect may diminish toward the end of the dosing interval. In such patients, consider an increase in dosage or twice daily administration. If blood pressure is not controlled with ramipril capsules alone, a diuretic can be added.

    2.3 Heart Failure Post-Myocardial Infarction

    For the treatment of post-myocardial infarction patients who have shown signs of congestive heart failure, the recommended starting dose of ramipril capsules is 2.5 mg twice daily (5 mg per day). A patient who becomes hypotensive at this dose may be switched to 1.25 mg twice daily. After one week at the starting dose, increase dose (if tolerated) toward a target dose of 5 mg twice daily, with dosage increases being about 3 weeks apart.

    After the initial dose of ramipril capsules, observe the patient under medical supervision for at least two hours and until blood pressure has stabilized for at least an additional hour. If possible, reduce the dose of any concomitant diuretic as this may diminish the likelihood of hypotension. The appearance of hypotension after the initial dose of ramipril capsules does not preclude subsequent careful dose titration with the drug, following effective management of the hypotension [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.5), Drug Interactions ( 7.1)].

    2.4 General Dosing Information

    Generally, swallow ramipril capsules whole. The ramipril capsule can also be opened and the contents sprinkled on a small amount (about 4 oz.) of applesauce or mixed in 4 oz. (120 mL) of water or apple juice. To be sure that ramipril is not lost when such a mixture is used, consume the mixture in its entirety. The described mixtures can be pre-prepared and stored for up to 24 hours at room temperature or up to 48 hours under refrigeration.

    Concomitant administration of ramipril capsules with potassium supplements, potassium salt substitutes, or potassium-sparing diuretics can lead to increases of serum potassium [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.8)].

    2.5 Dosage Adjustment

    Renal Impairment

    Establish baseline renal function in patients initiating ramipril capsules. Usual regimens of therapy with ramipril capsules may be followed in patients with estimated creatinine clearance > 40 mL/min. However, in patients with worse impairment, 25% of the usual dose of ramipril is expected to produce full therapeutic levels of ramiprilat [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.6)].

    Hypertension

    For patients with hypertension and renal impairment, the recommended initial dose is 1.25 mg ramipril capsules once daily. Dosage may be titrated upward until blood pressure is controlled or to a maximum total daily dose of 5 mg.

    Heart Failure Post-Myocardial Infarction

    For patients with heart failure and renal impairment, the recommended initial dose is 1.25 mg ramipril capsules once daily. The dose may be increased to 1.25 mg twice daily, and up to a maximum dose of 2.5 mg twice daily depending on clinical response and tolerability.

    Volume Depletion or Renal Artery Stenosis

    Blood pressure decreases associated with any dose of ramipril capsules depend, in part, on the presence or absence of volume depletion (e.g., past and current diuretic use) or the presence or absence of renal artery stenosis. If such circumstances are suspected to be present, initiate dosing at 1.25 mg once daily. Adjust dosage according to blood pressure response.

DOSAGE FORMS & STRENGTHS SECTION

Ramipril capsules are supplied as hard gelatin capsules containing 2.5 mg, 5 mg, and 10 mg of ramipril

CONTRAINDICATIONS SECTION

Ramipril capsules are contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to this product or any other ACE inhibitor (e.g., a patient who has experienced angioedema during therapy with any other ACE inhibitor).

Do not coadminister ramipril capsules with aliskiren:
in patients with diabetes

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS SECTION

  • 5.1 Anaphylactoid and Possibly Related Reactions

    Presumably because drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (e.g., ACE inhibitors) affect the metabolism of eicosanoids and polypeptides, including endogenous bradykinin, patients receiving these drugs (including ramipril) may be subject to a variety of adverse reactions, some of them serious.

    Angioedema

    Head and Neck Angioedema

    Patients with a history of angioedema unrelated to ACE inhibitor therapy may be at increased risk of angioedema while receiving an ACE inhibitor.

    Angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis, and larynx has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. Angioedema associated with laryngeal edema can be fatal. If laryngeal stridor or angioedema of the face, tongue, or glottis occurs, discontinue treatment with ramipril and institute appropriate therapy immediately. Where there is involvement of the tongue, glottis, or larynx likely to cause airway obstruction, administer appropriate therapy (e.g., subcutaneous epinephrine solution 1:1000 [0.3 mL to 0.5 mL]) promptly [see Adverse Reactions ( 6)].

    In considering the use of ramipril, note that in controlled clinical trials ACE inhibitors cause a higher rate of angioedema in Black patients than in non-Black patients.

    In a large U.S. postmarketing study, angioedema (defined as reports of angio, face, larynx, tongue, or throat edema) was reported in 3/1523 (0.20%) Black patients and in 8/8680 (0.09%) non-Black patients. These rates were not different statistically.

    Patients taking concomitant mTOR inhibitor (e.g., temsirolimus) therapy may be at increased risk for angioedema [see Drug Interactions ( 7.7)].

    Intestinal Angioedema

    Intestinal angioedema has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. These patients presented with abdominal pain (with or without nausea or vomiting); in some cases there was no prior history of facial angioedema and C-1 esterase levels were normal. The angioedema was diagnosed by procedures including abdominal CT scan or ultrasound, or at surgery, and symptoms resolved after stopping the ACE inhibitor. Include intestinal angioedema in the differential diagnosis of patients on ACE inhibitors presenting with abdominal pain.

    Anaphylactoid Reactions During Desensitization

    Two patients undergoing desensitizing treatment with hymenoptera venom while receiving ACE inhibitors sustained life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions. In the same patients, these reactions were avoided when ACE inhibitors were temporarily withheld, but they reappeared upon inadvertent rechallenge.

    Anaphylactoid Reactions During Membrane Exposure

    Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in patients dialyzed with high-flux membranes and treated concomitantly with an ACE inhibitor. Anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported in patients undergoing low-density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran sulfate absorption.

    5.2 Hepatic Failure and Impaired Liver Function

    Rarely, ACE inhibitors, including ramipril, have been associated with a syndrome that starts with cholestatic jaundice and progresses to fulminant hepatic necrosis and sometimes death. The mechanism of this syndrome is not understood. Discontinue ramipril if patient develops jaundice or marked elevations of hepatic enzymes.

    As ramipril is primarily metabolized by hepatic esterases to its active moiety, ramiprilat, patients with impaired liver function could develop markedly elevated plasma levels of ramipril. No formal pharmacokinetic studies have been carried out in hypertensive patients with impaired liver function.

    5.3 Renal Impairment

    As a consequence of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, changes in renal function may be anticipated in susceptible individuals. In patients with severe congestive heart failure whose renal function may depend on the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, treatment with ACE inhibitors, including ramipril, may be associated with oliguria or progressive azotemia and rarely with acute renal failure or death.

    In hypertensive patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis, increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine may occur. Experience with another ACE inhibitor suggests that these increases would be reversible upon discontinuation of ramipril and/or diuretic therapy. In such patients, monitor renal function during the first few weeks of therapy. Some hypertensive patients with no apparent preexisting renal vascular disease have developed increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, usually minor and transient, especially when ramipril has been given concomitantly with a diuretic. This is more likely to occur in patients with preexisting renal impairment. Dosage reduction of ramipril and/or discontinuation of the diuretic may be required.

    5.4 Neutropenia and Agranulocytosis

    In rare instances, treatment with ACE inhibitors may be associated with mild reductions in red blood cell count and hemoglobin content, blood cell or platelet counts. In isolated cases, agranulocytosis, pancytopenia, and bone marrow depression may occur. Hematological reactions to ACE inhibitors are more likely to occur in patients with collagen-vascular disease (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma) and renal impairment. Consider monitoring white blood cell counts in patients with collagen-vascular disease, especially if the disease is associated with impaired renal function.

    5.5 Hypotension

    General Considerations

    Ramipril can cause symptomatic hypotension, after either the initial dose or a later dose when the dosage has been increased. Like other ACE inhibitors, ramipril, has been only rarely associated with hypotension in uncomplicated hypertensive patients. Symptomatic hypotension is most likely to occur in patients who have been volume- and/or salt-depleted as a result of prolonged diuretic therapy, dietary salt restriction, dialysis, diarrhea, or vomiting. Correct volume- and salt-depletion before initiating therapy with ramipril.

    If excessive hypotension occurs, place the patient in a supine position and, if necessary, treat with intravenous infusion of physiological saline. Ramipril treatment usually can be continued following restoration of blood pressure and volume.

    Heart Failure Post-Myocardial Infarction

    In patients with heart failure post-myocardial infarction who are currently being treated with a diuretic, symptomatic hypotension occasionally can occur following the initial dose of ramipril. If the initial dose of 2.5 mg ramipril cannot be tolerated, use an initial dose of 1.25 mg ramipril to avoid excessive hypotension. Consider reducing the dose of concomitant diuretic to decrease the incidence of hypotension.

    Congestive Heart Failure

    In patients with congestive heart failure, with or without associated renal insufficiency, ACE inhibitor therapy may cause excessive hypotension, which may be associated with oliguria or azotemia and rarely, with acute renal failure and death. In such patients, initiate ramipril therapy under close medical supervision and follow patients closely for the first 2 weeks of treatment and whenever the dose of ramipril or diuretic is increased.

    Surgery and Anesthesia

    In patients undergoing surgery or during anesthesia with agents that produce hypotension, ramipril may block angiotensin II formation that would otherwise occur secondary to compensatory renin release. Hypotension that occurs as a result of this mechanism can be corrected by volume expansion.

    5.6 Fetal Toxicity

    Pregnancy Category D

    Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue ramipril as soon as possible [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.1)].

    5.7 Dual Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin System

    Dual blockade of the RAS with angiotensin receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors, or aliskiren is associated with increased risks of hypotension, hyperkalemia, and changes in renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to monotherapy. Most patients receiving the combination of two RAS inhibitors do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. In general, avoid combined use of RAS inhibitors. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function and electrolytes in patients on ramipril and other agents that affect the RAS.

    Telmisartan

    The ONTARGET trial enrolled 25,620 patients > 55 years old with atherosclerotic disease or diabetes with end-organ damage, randomized them to telmisartan only, ramipril only, or the combination, and followed them for a median of 56 months. Patients receiving the combination of telmisartan and ramipril did not obtain any benefit compared to monotherapy, but experienced an increased incidence of clinically important renal dysfunction (death, doubling of serum creatinine, or dialysis) compared with groups receiving telmisartan alone or ramipril alone. Concomitant use of telmisartan and ramipril is not recommended.

    Aliskiren

    Do not coadminister aliskiren with ramipril in patients with diabetes. Avoid concomitant use of aliskiren with ramipril in patients with renal impairment (GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2).

    5.8 Hyperkalemia

    In clinical trials with ramipril, hyperkalemia (serum potassium > 5.7 mEq/L) occurred in approximately 1% of hypertensive patients receiving ramipril. In most cases, these were isolated values, which resolved despite continued therapy. None of these patients were discontinued from the trials because of hyperkalemia. Risk factors for the development of hyperkalemia include renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, and the concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, and/or potassium-containing salt substitutes, which should be used cautiously, if at all, with ramipril [see Drug Interactions ( 7.1)].

    5.9 Cough

    Presumably caused by inhibition of the degradation of endogenous bradykinin, persistent nonproductive cough has been reported with all ACE inhibitors, always resolving after discontinuation of therapy. Consider the possibility of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor induced-cough in the differential diagnosis of cough.

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