RAMIPRIL- ramipril capsule
Proficient Rx LP
Ramipril capsules USP are indicated for the treatment of hypertension. It may be used alone or in combination with thiazide diuretics.
Ramipril capsules USP are indicated in stable patients who have demonstrated clinical signs of congestive heart failure within the first few days after sustaining acute myocardial infarction. Administration of ramipril to such patients has been shown to decrease the risk of death (principally cardiovascular death) and to decrease the risks of failure-related hospitalization and progression to severe/resistant heart failure [see CLINICAL STUDIES (14.3)].
The recommended initial dose for patients not receiving a diuretic is 2.5 mg once a day. Adjust dose according to blood pressure response. The usual maintenance dosage range is 2.5 mg to 20 mg per day administered as a single dose or in two equally divided doses. In some patients treated once daily, the antihypertensive effect may diminish toward the end of the dosing interval. In such patients, consider an increase in dosage or twice daily administration. If blood pressure is not controlled with ramipril alone, a diuretic can be added.
For the treatment of post-myocardial infarction patients who have shown signs of congestive heart failure, the recommended starting dose of ramipril is 2.5 mg twice daily (5 mg per day). A patient who becomes hypotensive at this dose may be switched to 1.25 mg twice daily. After one week at the starting dose, increase dose (if tolerated) toward a target dose of 5 mg twice daily, with dosage increases being about 3 weeks apart.
After the initial dose of ramipril, observe the patient under medical supervision for at least two hours and until blood pressure has stabilized for at least an additional hour. If possible, reduce the dose of any concomitant diuretic as this may diminish the likelihood of hypotension. The appearance of hypotension after the initial dose of ramipril does not preclude subsequent careful dose titration with the drug, following effective management of the hypotension [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.5), DRUG INTERACTIONS (7.1)].
Generally, swallow ramipril capsules whole. The ramipril capsule can also be opened and the contents sprinkled on a small amount (about 4 oz.) of applesauce or mixed in 4 oz. (120 mL) of water or apple juice. To be sure that ramipril is not lost when such a mixture is used, consume the mixture in its entirety. The described mixtures can be pre-prepared and stored for up to 24 hours at room temperature or up to 48 hours under refrigeration.
Concomitant administration of ramipril with potassium supplements, potassium salt substitutes, or potassium-sparing diuretics can lead to increases of serum potassium [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.8)].
Establish baseline renal function in patients initiating ramipril capsules. Usual regimens of therapy with ramipril capsule may be followed in patients with estimated creatinine clearance >40 mL/min. However, in patients with worse impairment, 25 % of the usual dose of ramipril capsule is expected to produce full therapeutic levels of ramiprilat [see USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS (8.6)].
For patients with hypertension and renal impairment, the recommended initial dose is 1.25 mg ramipril once daily. Dosage may be titrated upward until blood pressure is controlled or to a maximum total daily dose of 5 mg.
Heart Failure Post-Myocardial Infarction
For patients with heart failure and renal impairment, the recommended initial dose is 1.25 mg ramipril once daily. The dose may be increased to 1.25 mg twice daily, and up to a maximum dose of 2.5 mg twice daily depending on clinical response and tolerability.
Volume Depletion or Renal Artery Stenosis
Blood pressure decreases associated with any dose of ramipril depend, in part, on the presence or absence of volume depletion (e.g., past and current diuretic use) or the presence or absence of renal artery stenosis. If such circumstances are suspected to be present, initiate dosing at 1.25 mg once daily. Adjust dosage according to blood pressure response.
Ramipril capsules USP are supplied as hard gelatin capsules containing 1.25 mg, 2.5 mg, 5 mg, and 10 mg of ramipril.
Ramipril is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to this product or any other ACE inhibitor (e.g., a patient who has experienced angioedema during therapy with any other ACE inhibitor).
Presumably because drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (e.g., ACE inhibitors) affect the metabolism of eicosanoids and polypeptides, including endogenous bradykinin, patients receiving these drugs (including ramipril) may be subject to a variety of adverse reactions, some of them serious.
Head and Neck Angioedema:
Patients with a history of angioedema unrelated to ACE inhibitor therapy may be at increased risk of angioedema while receiving an ACE inhibitor.
Angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis, and larynx has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. Angioedema associated with laryngeal edema can be fatal. If laryngeal stridor or angioedema of the face, tongue, or glottis occurs, discontinue treatment with ramipril and institute appropriate therapy immediately. Where there is involvement of the tongue, glottis, or larynx likely to cause airway obstruction, administer appropriate therapy (e.g., subcutaneous epinephrine solution 1:1000 [0.3 mL to 0.5 mL]) promptly [see ADVERSE REACTIONS (6)].
In considering the use of ramipril, note that in controlled clinical trials ACE inhibitors cause a higher rate of angioedema in Black patients than in non-Black patients.
In a large U.S. post-marketing study, angioedema (defined as reports of angio, face, larynx, tongue, or throat edema) was reported in 3/1523 (0.20%) Black patients and in 8/8680 (0.09%) non-Black patients. These rates were not different statistically.
Intestinal angioedema has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. These patients presented with abdominal pain (with or without nausea or vomiting); in some cases there was no prior history of facial angioedema and C-1 esterase levels were normal. The angioedema was diagnosed by procedures including abdominal CT scan or ultrasound, or at surgery, and symptoms resolved after stopping the ACE inhibitor. Include intestinal angioedema in the differential diagnosis of patients on ACE inhibitors presenting with abdominal pain.
Anaphylactoid Reactions During Desensitization
Two patients undergoing desensitizing treatment with hymenoptera venom while receiving ACE inhibitors sustained life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions. In the same patients, these reactions were avoided when ACE inhibitors were temporarily withheld, but they reappeared upon inadvertent rechallenge.
Anaphylactoid Reactions During Membrane Exposure
Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in patients dialyzed with high-flux membranes and treated concomitantly with an ACE inhibitor. Anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported in patients undergoing low-density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran sulfate absorption.
Rarely, ACE inhibitors, including ramipril, have been associated with a syndrome that starts with cholestatic jaundice and progresses to fulminant hepatic necrosis and sometimes death. The mechanism of this syndrome is not understood. Discontinue ramipril if patient develops jaundice or marked elevations of hepatic enzymes.
As ramipril is primarily metabolized by hepatic esterases to its active moiety, ramiprilat, patients with impaired liver function could develop markedly elevated plasma levels of ramipril. No formal pharmacokinetic studies have been carried out in hypertensive patients with impaired liver function.
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