RANEXA- ranolazine tablet, film coated, extended release
Gilead Palo Alto, Inc.
Ranexa is indicated for the treatment of chronic angina.
Ranexa may be used with beta-blockers, nitrates, calcium channel blockers, anti-platelet therapy, lipid-lowering therapy, ACE inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers.
Initiate Ranexa dosing at 500 mg twice daily and increase to 1000 mg twice daily, as needed, based on clinical symptoms. Take Ranexa with or without meals. Swallow Ranexa tablets whole; do not crush, break, or chew.
The maximum recommended daily dose of Ranexa is 1000 mg twice daily.
If a dose of Ranexa is missed, take the prescribed dose at the next scheduled time; do not double the next dose.
Dose adjustments may be needed when Ranexa is taken in combination with certain other drugs [see Drug Interactions (7.1)]. Limit the maximum dose of Ranexa to 500 mg twice daily in patients on diltiazem, verapamil, and other moderate CYP3A inhibitors. Down-titrate Ranexa based on clinical response in patients concomitantly treated with P-gp inhibitors, such as cyclosporine.
Ranexa is supplied as film-coated, oblong-shaped, extended-release tablets in the following strengths:
- 500 mg tablets are light orange, with CVT500 on one side
- 1000 mg tablets are pale yellow, with CVT1000 on one side
Ranexa is contraindicated in patients:
- Taking strong inhibitors of CYP3A [see Drug Interactions (7.1)]
- Taking inducers of CYP3A [see Drug Interactions (7.1)]
- With clinically significant hepatic impairment [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6)]
Ranolazine blocks IKr and prolongs the QTc interval in a dose-related manner.
Clinical experience in an acute coronary syndrome population did not show an increased risk of proarrhythmia or sudden death [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. However, there is little experience with high doses (> 1000 mg twice daily) or exposure, other QT-prolonging drugs, or potassium channel variants resulting in a long QT interval.
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
A total of 2,018 patients with chronic angina were treated with ranolazine in controlled clinical trials. Of the patients treated with Ranexa, 1,026 were enrolled in three double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized studies (CARISA, ERICA, MARISA) of up to 12 weeks duration. In addition, upon study completion, 1,251 patients received treatment with Ranexa in open-label, long-term studies; 1,227 patients were exposed to Ranexa for more than 1 year, 613 patients for more than 2 years, 531 patients for more than 3 years, and 326 patients for more than 4 years.
At recommended doses, about 6% of patients discontinued treatment with Ranexa because of an adverse event in controlled studies in angina patients compared to about 3% on placebo. The most common adverse events that led to discontinuation more frequently on Ranexa than placebo were dizziness (1.3% versus 0.1%), nausea (1% versus 0%), asthenia, constipation, and headache (each about 0.5% versus 0%). Doses above 1000 mg twice daily are poorly tolerated.
In controlled clinical trials of angina patients, the most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse reactions (> 4% and more common on Ranexa than on placebo) were dizziness (6.2%), headache (5.5%), constipation (4.5%), and nausea (4.4%). Dizziness may be dose-related. In open-label, long-term treatment studies, a similar adverse reaction profile was observed.
The following additional adverse reactions occurred at an incidence of 0.5 to 2.0% in patients treated with Ranexa and were more frequent than the incidence observed in placebo-treated patients:
Cardiac Disorders – bradycardia, palpitations
Ear and Labyrinth Disorders – tinnitus, vertigo
Gastrointestinal Disorders – abdominal pain, dry mouth, vomiting
General Disorders and Administrative Site Adverse Events – peripheral edema
Respiratory , Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders – dyspnea
Vascular Disorders – hypotension, orthostatic hypotension
Other (< 0.5%) but potentially medically important adverse reactions observed more frequently with Ranexa than placebo treatment in all controlled studies included: angioedema, renal failure, eosinophilia, blurred vision, confusional state, hematuria, hypoesthesia, paresthesia, tremor, pulmonary fibrosis, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and pancytopenia.
A large clinical trial in acute coronary syndrome patients was unsuccessful in demonstrating a benefit for Ranexa, but there was no apparent proarrhythmic effect in these high-risk patients [see Clinical Trials (14.2)].
Ranexa produces small reductions in hemoglobin A1c. Ranexa is not a treatment for diabetes.
Ranexa produces elevations of serum creatinine by 0.1 mg/dL, regardless of previous renal function. The elevation has a rapid onset, shows no signs of progression during long-term therapy, is reversible after discontinuation of Ranexa, and is not accompanied by changes in BUN. In healthy volunteers, Ranexa 1000 mg twice daily had no effect upon the glomerular filtration rate. The elevated creatinine levels are likely due to a blockage of creatinine’s tubular secretion by ranolazine or one of its metabolites.
Ranolazine is primarily metabolized by CYP3A and is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp).
Do not use Ranexa with strong CYP3A inhibitors, including ketoconazole, itraconazole, clarithromycin, nefazodone, nelfinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, and saquinavir. Ketoconazole (200 mg twice daily) increases average steady-state plasma concentrations of ranolazine 3.2-fold [see Contraindications (4)].
Limit the dose of Ranexa to 500 mg twice daily in patients on moderate CYP3A inhibitors, including diltiazem, verapamil, aprepitant, erythromycin, fluconazole, and grapefruit juice or grapefruit-containing products. Diltiazem (180–360 mg daily) and verapamil (120 mg three times daily) increase ranolazine steady-state plasma concentrations about 2-fold [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].
Weak CYP3A inhibitors such as simvastatin (20 mg once daily) and cimetidine (400 mg three times daily) do not increase the exposure to ranolazine in healthy volunteers.
Down-titrate Ranexa based on clinical response in patients concomitantly treated with P-gp inhibitors, such as cyclosporine [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].
CYP3A and P-gp Inducers
Avoid co-administration of Ranexa and CYP3A inducers such as rifampin, rifabutin, rifapentin, phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and St. John’s wort. Rifampin (600 mg once daily) decreases the plasma concentration of ranolazine (1000 mg twice daily) by approximately 95% by induction of CYP3A and, probably, P-gp.
The potent CYP2D6 inhibitor, paroxetine (20 mg once daily), increases ranolazine concentrations 1.2-fold. No dose adjustment of Ranexa is required in patients treated with CYP2D6 inhibitors.
Digoxin (0.125 mg) does not significantly alter ranolazine levels.
In vitro studies indicate that ranolazine and its O-demethylated metabolite are weak inhibitors of CYP3A, moderate inhibitors of CYP2D6 and moderate P-gp inhibitors. Ranolazine and its most abundant metabolites are not known to inhibit the metabolism of substrates for CYP 1A2, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, or 2E1 in human liver microsomes, suggesting that ranolazine is unlikely to alter the pharmacokinetics of drugs metabolized by these enzymes.
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