Ranitidine

RANITIDINE- ranitidine hydrochloride tablet
McKesson Corporation

DESCRIPTION

Ranitidine hydrochloride (HCl), USP, is a histamine H 2 -receptor antagonist. Chemically it is

N [2-[[[5-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-2-furanyl]methyl]thio]ethyl]- N ′-methyl-2-nitro-1,1-ethene-diamine, HCl. It has the following structural formula:

This is the chemical structure
(click image for full-size original)

The molecular formula is C 13 H22 N4 O3 S•HCl, representing a molecular weight of 350.87.

Ranitidine HCl is a white to pale yellow, crystalline substance that is soluble in water. It has a slightly bitter taste and sulfurlike odor.

Each tablet, for oral administration, contains 168 mg or 336 mg of ranitidine hydrochloride equivalent to 150 mg or 300 mg of ranitidine, respectively. In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: FD&C Yellow No. 6 Aluminum Lake, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, pregelatinized starch, synthetic yellow iron oxide, titanium dioxide and triethyl citrate.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Ranitidine is a competitive, reversible inhibitor of the action of histamine at the histamine H2-receptors, including receptors on the gastric cells. Ranitidine does not lower serum Ca++ in hypercalcemic states. Ranitidine is not an anticholinergic agent.

Pharmacokinetics:

Absorption: Ranitidine is 50% absorbed after oral administration, compared to an intravenous (IV) injection with mean peak levels of 440 to 545 ng/mL occurring 2 to 3 hours after a 150 mg dose. Absorption is not significantly impaired by the administration of food or antacids. Propantheline slightly delays and increases peak blood levels of ranitidine, probably by delaying gastric emptying and transit time. In one study, simultaneous administration of high-potency antacid (150 mmol) in fasting subjects has been reported to decrease the absorption of ranitidine.

Distribution: The volume of distribution is about 1.4 L/kg. Serum protein binding averages 15%.

Metabolism: In humans, the N-oxide is the principal metabolite in the urine; however, this amounts to <4% of the dose. Other metabolites are the S-oxide (1%) and the desmethyl ranitidine (1%).The remainder of the administered dose is found in the stool. Studies in patients with hepatic dysfunction (compensated cirrhosis) indicate that there are minor, but clinically insignificant, alterations in ranitidine half-life, distribution, clearance, and bioavailability.

Excretion: The principal route of excretion is the urine, with approximately 30% of the orally administered dose collected in the urine as unchanged drug in 24 hours. Renal clearance is about 410 mL/min, indicating active tubular excretion. The elimination half-life is 2.5 to 3 hours. Four patients with clinically significant renal function impairment (creatinine clearance 25 to 35 mL/min) administered 50 mg of ranitidine intravenously had an average plasma half-life of 4.8 hours, a ranitidine clearance of 29 mL/min, and a volume of distribution of 1.76 L/kg. In general, these parameters appear to be altered in proportion to creatinine clearance (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Geriatrics: The plasma half-life is prolonged and total clearance is reduced in the elderly population due to a decrease in renal function. The elimination half-life is 3 to 4 hours. Peak levels average 526 ng/mL following a 150 mg twice daily dose and occur in about 3 hours (see PRECAUTIONS, Geriatric Use and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Dosage Adjustment for Patients with Impaired Renal Function).

Pediatrics: There are no significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameter values for ranitidine in pediatric patients (from 1 month up to 16 years of age) and healthy adults when correction is made for body weight. The average bioavailability of ranitidine given orally to pediatric patients is 48% which is comparable to the bioavailability of ranitidine in the adult population. All other pharmacokinetic parameter values (t 1/2 , Vd, and CL) are similar to those observed with intravenous ranitidine use in pediatric patients. Estimates of Cmax and Tmax are displayed in Table 1.

Table 1. Ranitidine Pharmacokinetics in Pediatric Patients Following Oral Dosing

Population (age)

n

Dosage Form (dose)

Cmax (ng/mL)

Tmax (hours)

Gastric or duodenal ulcer (3.5 to 16 years)

12

Tablets (1 to 2 mg/kg)

54 to 492

2.0

Otherwise healthy requiring ZANTAC (0.7 to 14 years, Single dose)

10

Syrup (2 mg/kg)

244

1.61

Otherwise healthy requiring ZANTAC

10

Syrup (2 mg/kg)

320

1.66

Plasma clearance measured in 2 neonatal patients (less than 1 month of age) was considerably lower (3 mL/min/kg) than children or adults and is likely due to reduced renal function observed in this population (see PRECAUTIONS: Pediatric Use and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION: Pediatric Use).

Pharmacodynamics: Serum concentrations necessary to inhibit 50% of stimulated gastric acid secretion are estimated to be 36 to 94 ng/mL. Following a single oral dose of 150 mg, serum concentrations of ranitidine are in this range up to 12 hours. However, blood levels bear no consistent relationship to dose or degree of acid inhibition.

Antisecretory Activity:

1. Effects on Acid Secretion: Ranitidine inhibits both daytime and nocturnal basal gastric acid secretions as well as gastric acid secretion stimulated by food, betazole, and pentagastrin, as shown in Table 2.

Table 2. Effect of Oral Ranitidine on Gastric Acid Secretion

Time After Dose, h

% Inhibition of Gastric Acid Output by Dose, mg

75-80

100

150

200

Basal

Up to 4

99

95

Nocturnal

Up to 13

95

96

92

Betazole

Up to 3

97

99

Pentagastrin

Up to 5

98

72

72

80

Meal

Up to 3

73

79

95

It appears that basal-, nocturnal-, and betazole-stimulated secretions are most sensitive to inhibition by ranitidine, responding almost completely to doses of 100 mg or less, while pentagastrin- and food-stimulated secretions are more difficult to suppress.

2. Effects on Other Gastrointestinal Secretions:

Pepsin : Oral raniditine does not affect pepsin secretion. Total pepsin output is reduced in proportion to the decrease in volume of gastric juice.

Intrinsic Factor: Oral ranitidine has no significant effect on pentagastrin-stimulated intrinsic factor secretion.

Serum Gastrin: Ranitidine has little or no effect on fasting or postprandial serum gastrin.

Other Pharmacologic Actions:

Gastric bacterial flora — increase in nitrate-reducing organisms, significance not known.
Prolactin levels — no effect in recommended oral or intravenous (IV) dosage, but small, transient, dose-related increases in serum prolactin have been reported after IV bolus injections of 100 mg or more.
Other pituitary hormones — no effect on serum gonadotropins, TSH, or GH. Possible impairment of vasopressin release.
No change in cortisol, aldosterone, androgen, or estrogen levels.
No antiandrogenic action.
No effect on count, motility, or morphology of sperm.

Pediatrics: Oral doses of 6 to 10 mg/kg per day in 2 or 3 divided doses maintain gastric pH >4 throughout most of the dosing interval.

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