There are no data on the presence of repaglinide in human milk, the effects on the breastfeeding infant, or the effects on milk production. The drug is present in animal milk. When a drug is present in animal milk, it is likely that the drug will be present in human milk (see Data). Because of the potential for hypoglycemia in breastfed infants, repaglinide tablets are not recommended for use when breastfeeding.
In rat reproduction studies, measurable levels of repaglinide were detected in the breast milk of the dams and lowered blood glucose levels were observed in the pups. Cross fostering studies indicated that skeletal changes [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)] could be induced in control pups nursed by treated dams, although this occurred to a lesser degree than those pups treated in utero.
Safety and effectiveness have not been established in pediatric patients.
In clinical studies of 24 weeks or greater duration, 415 patients were over 65 years of age and no patients were greater than 75 years of age. In one-year, active-controlled trials, no differences were seen in effectiveness or adverse events between these subjects and those less than 65. There was no increase in frequency or severity of hypoglycemia in older subjects, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals to repaglinide tablet therapy cannot be ruled out.
Pharmacokinetic studies of repaglinide were conducted in patients with mild to moderate renal function impairment (CrCl = 40 – 80 mL/min), and severe renal function impairment (CrCl = 20 – 40 mL/min). Initial dose adjustment is not required in patients with mild to moderate renal dysfunction. However, patients with severe renal function impairment should initiate repaglinide tablet therapy with the 0.5 mg dose and be carefully titrated [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].
Studies were not conducted in patients with creatinine clearances below 20 mL/min or patients with renal failure requiring hemodialysis.
A single-dose study was conducted 12 patients with chronic liver disease. Patients with moderate to severe impairment of liver function had higher and more prolonged serum concentrations. Therefore, repaglinide tablets should be used cautiously in patients with impaired liver function. Longer intervals between dose adjustments may be needed to allow full assessment of response.
Severe hypoglycemic reactions with coma, seizure, or other neurological impairment may occur and constitute medical emergencies requiring immediate hospitalization. Hypoglycemic symptoms without loss of consciousness or neurologic findings should be treated aggressively with oral glucose and adjustments in drug dosage and/or meal patterns. Close monitoring may continue until the physician is assured that the patient is out of danger. Patients should be closely monitored for a minimum of 24 to 48 hours, since hypoglycemia may recur after apparent clinical recovery. There is no evidence that repaglinide tablets are dialyzable using hemodialysis.
Repaglinide Tablets, USP are an oral blood glucose-lowering drug of the glinide class. Repaglinide, S(+)2-ethoxy-4(2((3-methyl-1-(2-(1-piperidinyl) phenyl)-butyl) amino)-2-oxoethyl) benzoic acid, is chemically unrelated to the oral sulfonylurea insulin secretagogues.
Structural Formula of Repaglinide
Repaglinide is a white to off-white powder with molecular formula C27 H36 N2 O4 and a molecular weight of 452.6. Repaglinide Tablets, USP contain 0.5 mg, 1 mg or 2 mg of repaglinide. In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate, microcrystalline cellulose, corn starch, polacrilin potassium, povidone, glycerin, magnesium stearate, meglumine and poloxamer, and colloidal silicon dioxide. The 1 mg and 2 mg tablets contain ferric oxides (yellow and red, respectively) as coloring agents.
Repaglinide lowers blood glucose levels by stimulating the release of insulin from the pancreas. This action is dependent upon functioning beta (ß) cells in the pancreatic islets. Insulin release is glucose-dependent and diminishes at low glucose concentrations.
Repaglinide closes ATP-dependent potassium channels in the ß-cell membrane by binding at characterizable sites. This potassium channel blockade depolarizes the ß-cell, which leads to an opening of calcium channels. The resulting increased calcium influx induces insulin secretion. The ion channel mechanism is highly tissue selective with low affinity for heart and skeletal muscle.
A four-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-response trial was conducted in 138 patients with type 2 diabetes using doses ranging from 0.25 (not an approved dose) to 4 mg taken with each of three meals. Repaglinide tablet therapy resulted in dose-proportional glucose lowering over the full dose range. Plasma insulin levels increased after meals and reverted toward baseline before the next meal. Most of the fasting blood glucose-lowering effect was demonstrated within 1-2 weeks.
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-month dose titration study, repaglinide tablets or placebo doses for each patient were increased weekly from 0.25 mg (not an approved dose) through 0.5, 1, and 2 mg, to a maximum of 4 mg, until a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level <160 mg/dL was achieved or the maximum dose reached. The dose that achieved the targeted control or the maximum dose was continued to end of study. FPG and 2-hour post-prandial glucose (PPG) increased in patients receiving placebo and decreased in patients treated with repaglinide. Differences between the repaglinide- and placebo-treated groups were -61 mg/dL (FPG) and -104 mg/dL (PPG) (Table 4).
Table 4: Repaglinide Tablets vs Placebo
Mean Change from Baseline after 3 Months of Treatment
Fasting Plasma Glucose (mg/dL)
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Post Prandial Glucose (mg/dL)
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*: p< 0.05 for between group difference
The dosing of repaglinide tablets relative to meal-related insulin release was studied in three trials including 58 patients. Glycemic control was maintained during a period in which the meal and dosing pattern was varied (2, 3 or 4 meals per day; before meals x 2, 3, or 4) compared with a period of 3 regular meals and 3 doses per day (before meals x 3). Blood glucose-lowering effect did not differ when repaglinide tablets were administered at the start of a meal, 15 minutes before, or 30 minutes before the meal.
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