Safety and effectiveness have not been established in pediatric patients.
In clinical studies of 24 weeks or greater duration, 415 patients were over 65 years of age and no patients were greater than 75 years of age. In one-year, active-controlled trials, no differences were seen in effectiveness or adverse events between these subjects and those less than 65. There was no increase in frequency or severity of hypoglycemia in older subjects, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals to repaglinide therapy cannot be ruled out.
Pharmacokinetic studies of repaglinide were conducted in patients with mild to moderate renal function impairment (CrCl = 40 to 80 mL/min), and severe renal function impairment (CrCl = 20 to 40 mL/min). Initial dose adjustment is not required in patients with mild to moderate renal dysfunction. However, patients with severe renal function impairment should initiate repaglinide therapy with the 0.5 mg dose and be carefully titrated [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].
Studies were not conducted in patients with creatinine clearances below 20 mL/min or patients with renal failure requiring hemodialysis.
A single-dose study was conducted 12 patients with chronic liver disease. Patients with moderate to severe impairment of liver function had higher and more prolonged serum concentrations. Therefore, repaglinide should be used cautiously in patients with impaired liver function. Longer intervals between dose adjustments may be needed to allow full assessment of response.
Severe hypoglycemic reactions with coma, seizure, or other neurological impairment may occur and constitute medical emergencies requiring immediate hospitalization. Hypoglycemic symptoms without loss of consciousness or neurologic findings should be treated aggressively with oral glucose and adjustments in drug dosage and/or meal patterns. Close monitoring may continue until the physician is assured that the patient is out of danger. Patients should be closely monitored for a minimum of 24 to 48 hours, since hypoglycemia may recur after apparent clinical recovery. There is no evidence that repaglinide is dialyzable using hemodialysis.
Repaglinide is an oral blood glucose-lowering drug of the glinide class. Repaglinide, S(+)2-ethoxy-4(2((3-methyl-1-(2-(1-piperidinyl) phenyl)-butyl) amino)-2-oxoethyl) benzoic acid, is chemically unrelated to the oral sulfonylurea insulin secretagogues.
Structural Formula of Repaglinide
Repaglinide USP is a white to off-white solid with molecular formula C27 H36 N2 O4 and a molecular weight of 452.6. Repaglinide tablets, USP contain 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg of repaglinide USP. In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate, corn starch, glycerol, magnesium stearate, meglumine, microcrystalline cellulose, polacrillin potassium, poloxamer, and povidone. In addition, the 1 mg tablet contains ferric oxide (Sicovit Yellow 10) and 2 mg tablet contains ferric oxide (Sicovit Red 30).
Repaglinide lowers blood glucose levels by stimulating the release of insulin from the pancreas. This action is dependent upon functioning beta (ß) cells in the pancreatic islets. Insulin release is glucose-dependent and diminishes at low glucose concentrations.
Repaglinide closes ATP-dependent potassium channels in the ß-cell membrane by binding at characterizable sites. This potassium channel blockade depolarizes the ß-cell, which leads to an opening of calcium channels. The resulting increased calcium influx induces insulin secretion. The ion channel mechanism is highly tissue selective with low affinity for heart and skeletal muscle.
A four-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-response trial was conducted in 138 patients with type 2 diabetes using doses ranging from 0.25 (not an approved dose) to 4 mg taken with each of three meals. Repaglinide therapy resulted in dose-proportional glucose lowering over the full dose range. Plasma insulin levels increased after meals and reverted toward baseline before the next meal. Most of the fasting blood glucose-lowering effect was demonstrated within 1 to 2 weeks.
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-month dose titration study, repaglinide or placebo doses for each patient were increased weekly from 0.25 mg (not an approved dose) through 0.5, 1, and 2 mg, to a maximum of 4 mg, until a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level <160 mg/dL was achieved or the maximum dose reached. The dose that achieved the targeted control or the maximum dose was continued to end of study. FPG and 2-hour post-prandial glucose (PPG) increased in patients receiving placebo and decreased in patients treated with repaglinide. Differences between the repaglinide- and placebo-treated groups were -61 mg/dL (FPG) and -104 mg/dL (PPG) (Table 4).
|*:p< 0.05 for between group difference|
|Fasting Plasma Glucose (mg/dL) Baseline Change from baseline (at last visit) Post Prandial Glucose (mg/dL) Baseline Change from baseline (at last visit)||220.2-31.0* 261.7-47.6*||215.330.3245.256.5|
The dosing of repaglinide relative to meal-related insulin release was studied in three trials including 58 patients. Glycemic control was maintained during a period in which the meal and dosing pattern was varied (2, 3 or 4 meals per day; before meals x 2, 3, or 4) compared with a period of 3 regular meals and 3 doses per day (before meals x 3). Blood glucose-lowering effect did not differ when repaglinide was administered at the start of a meal, 15 minutes before, or 30 minutes before the meal.
The pharmacokinetic parameters of repaglinide obtained from a single-dose, crossover study in healthy subjects and from a multiple-dose, parallel, dose-proportionality (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg) study in patients with type 2 diabetes are summarized in Tables 5 and 6. These data indicate that repaglinide did not accumulate in serum. Clearance of oral repaglinide did not change over the 0.5 to 4 mg dose range, indicating a linear relationship between dose and plasma drug levels.
|CL = total body clearance Vss = volume of distribution at steady state AbsBio = absolute bioavailability|
|CL (based on i.v.)||38 ± 16 L/hr|
|Vss (based on i.v.)||31 ± 12 L|
|AbsBio||56 ± 9%|
|*dosed preprandially with three meals|
|Dose (mg)||AUC0-24 hr (ng/mL*hr) Mean (SD)||Cmax0-5 hr (ng/mL) Mean (SD)|
|0.5||68.9 (154.4)||9.8 (10.2)|
|1||125.8 (129.8)||18.3 (9.1)|
|2||152.4 (89.60)||26.0 (13.0)|
|4||447.4 (211.3)||65.8 (30.1)|
|Tmax0-5 hr Means (SD)||T½ Means (Ind Range)|
|0.5 to 4||1.0 to 1.4 (0.3 to 0.5) hr||1.0 to 1.4 (0.4 to 8.0) hr|
After oral administration, repaglinide is completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. After single and multiple oral doses in healthy subjects or in patients, peak plasma drug levels (Cmax ) occur within 1 hour (Tmax ). Repaglinide is eliminated from the blood stream with a half-life of approximately 1 hour. The mean absolute bioavailability is 56%. When repaglinide was given with food, the mean Tmax was not changed, but the mean Cmax and AUC (area under the time/plasma concentration curve) were decreased 20% and 12.4%, respectively.
After intravenous (IV) dosing in healthy subjects, the volume of distribution at steady state (Vss ) was 31 L, and the total body clearance (CL) was 38 L/h. Protein binding and binding to human serum albumin was greater than 98%.
Metabolism and Elimination
Repaglinide is completely metabolized by oxidative biotransformation and direct conjugation with glucuronic acid after either an IV or oral dose. The major metabolites are an oxidized dicarboxylic acid (M2), the aromatic amine (M1), and the acyl glucuronide (M7). The cytochrome P-450 enzyme system, specifically 2C8 and 3A4, have been shown to be involved in the N-dealkylation of repaglinide to M2 and the further oxidation to M1. Metabolites do not contribute to the glucose-lowering effect of repaglinide.
Within 96 hours after dosing with 14 C-repaglinide as a single, oral dose, approximately 90% of the radiolabel was recovered in the feces and approximately 8% in the urine. Only 0.1% of the dose is cleared in the urine as parent compound. The major metabolite (M2) accounted for 60% of the administered dose. Less than 2% of parent drug was recovered in feces. Repaglinide appears to be a substrate for active hepatic uptake transporter (organic anion transporting protein OATP1B1).
Variability of Exposure
Repaglinide AUC after multiple doses of 0.25 to 4 mg with each meal varies over a wide range. The intra-individual and inter- individual coefficients of variation were 36% and 69%, respectively. AUC over the therapeutic dose range included 69 to 1005 ng/mL*hr, but AUC exposure up to 5417 ng/mL*hr was reached in dose escalation studies without apparent adverse consequences.
Healthy volunteers were treated with a regimen of 2 mg repaglinide taken before each of 3 meals. There were no significant differences in repaglinide pharmacokinetics between the group of patients <65 years of age and a comparably sized group of patients ≥65 years of age [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].
A comparison of pharmacokinetics in males and females showed the AUC over the 0.5 mg to 4 mg dose range to be 15% to 70% higher in females with type 2 diabetes. This difference was not reflected in the frequency of hypoglycemic episodes (male: 16%; female: 17%) or other adverse events.
No pharmacokinetic studies to assess the effects of race have been performed, but in a U.S. 1-year study in patients with type 2 diabetes, the blood glucose-lowering effect was comparable between Caucasians (n=297) and African-Americans (n=33). In a U.S. dose-response study, there was no apparent difference in exposure (AUC) between Caucasians (n=74) and Hispanics (n=33).
Single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of repaglinide were compared between patients with type 2 diabetes and normal renal function (CrCl > 80 mL/min), mild to moderate renal function impairment (CrCl = 40 to 80 mL/min), and severe renal function impairment (CrCl = 20 to 40 mL/min). Both AUC and Cmax of repaglinide were similar in patients with normal and mild to moderately impaired renal function (mean values 56.7 ng/mL*hr vs 57.2 ng/mL*hr and 37.5 ng/mL vs 37.7 ng/mL, respectively.) Patients with severely reduced renal function had elevated mean AUC and Cmax values (98.0 ng/mL*hr and 50.7 ng/mL, respectively), but this study showed only a weak correlation between repaglinide levels and creatinine clearance.
A single-dose, open-label study was conducted in 12 healthy subjects and 12 patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) classified by Child-Pugh scale and caffeine clearance. Patients with moderate to severe impairment of liver function had higher and more prolonged serum concentrations of both total and unbound repaglinide than healthy subjects (AUChealthy : 91.6 ng/mL*hr; AUCCLD patients : 368.9 ng/mL*hr; Cmax , healthy : 46.7 ng/mL; Cmax , CLD patients : 105.4 ng/mL). AUC was statistically correlated with caffeine clearance. No difference in glucose profiles was observed across patient groups.
Drug interaction studies performed in healthy volunteers show that repaglinide had no clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetic properties of digoxin, theophylline, or warfarin. Co-administration of cimetidine with repaglinide did not significantly alter the absorption and disposition of repaglinide. Additionally, the following drugs were studied in healthy volunteers with co-administration of repaglinide.
|1 Unless indicated all drug interactions were observed with single dose of 0.25 mg repaglinide↑ indicates increase↓ indicates decrease* Indicates data are from published literature|
|Study Drug||Dosing||Repaglinide Dosing1||Repaglinide|
|Clarithromycin*||250 mg BIDfor 4 days||40% ↑||67% ↑|
|Clopidogrel*||300 mg (Day 1)75 mg QD (Day 2 to 3)||0.25 mg(Day 1 and 3)||(day 1) 5.1 fold ↑(3.9 to 6.6)(day 3) 3.9 fold ↑(2.9 to 5.3)||2.5 fold ↑(1.8 to 3.5)2.0 fold ↑(1.3 to 3.1)|
|Cyclosporine||100 mg(2 doses 12 hours apart)||2.5 fold ↑||1.8 fold ↑|
|Deferasirox*||30 mg/kg QDfor 4 days||0.5 mg||2.3 fold ↑||62% ↑|
|Fenofibrate||200 mg QDfor 5 days||0%||0%|
|Gemfibrozil*||600 mg BIDfor 3 days||8.1 fold ↑||2.4 fold ↑|
|Itraconazole*||100 mg BIDfor 3 days||1.4 fold ↑||1.5 fold ↑|
|Gemfibrozil + Itraconazole* Co-administration||Gem: 600 mg BID for 3 days Itra: 100 mg BIDfor 3 days||19 fold ↑||2.8 fold ↑|
|Ketoconazole||200 mg QDfor 4 days||2 mg||15% ↑||16% ↑|
|Levonorgestrel/ethinyl Estradiol||(0.15 mg/0.03 mg)Combination tablet QD for 21 days||2 mg||0%||20% ↑|
|Nifedipine*||10 mg TIDfor 4 days||2 mg||0%||0%|
|Rifampin*||600 mg QDfor 6 to 7 days||4 mg||32 to 80% ↓||17 to 79% ↓|
|Simvastatin||20 mg QDfor 4 days||2 mg||0%||26% ↑|
|Trimethoprim*||160 mg BIDfor 2 days160 mg QDfor 1 day||61% ↑||41% ↑|
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