Because these adverse reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Hypersensitivity and skin reactions have been reported, including angioedema, generalized rash, bullous skin reactions, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis.
Gastrointestinal Adverse Events
Events involving upper gastrointestinal irritation, such as esophagitis and esophageal or gastric ulcers, have been reported [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ].
Bone, joint, or muscle pain, described as severe or incapacitating, have been reported rarely [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ].
Reactions of eye inflammation including iritis and uveitis have been reported rarely.
No specific drug-drug interaction studies were performed. Risedronate is not metabolized and does not induce or inhibit hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes (for example, Cytochrome P450).
Coadministration of risedronate sodium and calcium, antacids, or oral medications containing divalent cations will interfere with the absorption of risedronate sodium.
One study of about 500 early postmenopausal women has been conducted to date in which treatment with risedronate sodium 5 mg daily plus estrogen replacement therapy was compared to estrogen replacement therapy alone. Exposure to study drugs was approximately 12 to 18 months and the primary endpoint was change in BMD. If considered appropriate, risedronate sodium may be used concomitantly with hormone replacement therapy.
Of over 5,700 patients enrolled in the risedronate sodium Phase 3 osteoporosis studies, aspirin use was reported by 31% of patients, 24% of whom were regular users (3 or more days per week). Forty-eight percent of patients reported NSAID use, 21% of whom were regular users. Among regular aspirin or NSAID users, the incidence of upper gastrointestinal adverse experiences in placebo-treated patients (24.8%) was similar to that in risedronate sodium-treated patients (24.5%).
Of over 5,700 patients enrolled in the risedronate sodium Phase 3 osteoporosis studies, 21% used H2 blockers and/or PPIs. Among these patients, the incidence of upper gastrointestinal adverse experiences in the placebo-treated patients was similar to that in risedronate sodium-treated patients.
Available data on the use of risedronate sodium in pregnant women are insufficient to inform a drug-associated risk of adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. Discontinue risedronate when pregnancy is recognized.
In animal reproduction studies, daily oral administration of risedronate to pregnant rats during organogenesis decreased neonatal survival and body weight at doses approximately 5 and 26 times, respectively, the highest recommended human daily dose of 30 mg (based on body surface area, mg/m2). A low incidence of cleft palate was observed in fetuses of dams treated at doses approximately equal to the 30 mg human daily dose. Delayed skeletal ossification was observed in fetuses of dams treated at approximately 2.5 to 5 times the 30 mg human daily dose. Periparturient mortality due to maternal hypocalcemia occurred in dams and neonates upon daily oral administration of risedronate to pregnant rats during mating and/or gestation starting at doses equivalent to the 30 mg daily human dose.
Bisphosphonates are incorporated into the bone matrix, from which they are gradually released over a period of years. The amount of bisphosphonate incorporated into adult bone and available for release into the systemic circulation is directly related to the dose and duration of bisphosphonate use. Consequently, based on the mechanism of action of bisphosphonates, there is a potential risk of fetal harm, predominantly skeletal, if a woman becomes pregnant after completing a course of bisphosphonate therapy. The impact of variables such as time between cessation of bisphosphonate therapy to conception, the particular bisphosphonate used, and the route of administration (intravenous versus oral) on this risk has not been studied.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defects, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risks of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
In animal studies, pregnant rats received risedronate sodium during organogenesis at doses equivalent to 1 to 26 times the 30 mg human daily dose (based on body surface area, mg/m2). Survival of neonates was decreased in dams treated during gestation with oral doses approximately 5 times the human dose, and body weight was decreased in neonates of dams treated with approximately 26 times the human dose. A low incidence of cleft palate was observed in fetuses of dams treated with oral doses approximately equal to the human dose. The number of fetuses exhibiting incomplete ossification of sternebrae or skull of dams treated with approximately 2.5 times the human dose was significantly increased compared to controls. Both incomplete ossification and unossified sternebrae were increased in fetuses of dams treated with oral doses approximately 5 times the human dose.
No significant ossification effects were seen in fetuses of rabbits treated with oral doses approximately 7 times the human dose (the highest dose tested). However, 1 of 14 litters were aborted and 1 of 14 litters were delivered prematurely.Periparturient mortality due to maternal hypocalcemia occurred in dams and neonates when pregnant rats were treated daily during mating and/or gestation with oral doses equivalent to the human dose or higher.
There are no data on the presence of risedronate in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. A small degree of lacteal transfer occurred in nursing rats. The concentration of the drug in animal milk does not necessarily predict the concentration of drug in human milk. However, when a drug is present in animal milk, it is likely that the drug will be present in human milk. The developmental and health benefits of breast-feeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for risedronate and any potential adverse effects on the breast-fed child from risedronate or from the underlying maternal condition.
Risedronate was detected in neonates of lactating rats given a single oral dose of risedronate at 24-hours post-dosing, indicating a small degree of lacteal transfer.
Risedronate sodium is not indicated for use in pediatric patients.
The safety and effectiveness of risedronate was assessed in a one-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study of 143 pediatric patients (94 received risedronate) with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). The enrolled population was predominantly patients with mild osteogenesis imperfecta (85% Type-I), aged 4 to less than 16 years, 50% male and 82% Caucasian, with a mean lumbar spine BMD Z-score of -2.08 (2.08 standard deviations below the mean for age-matched controls). Patients received either a 2.5 mg (less than or equal to 30 kg body weight) or 5 mg (greater than 30 kg body weight) daily oral dose. After one year, an increase in lumbar spine BMD in the risedronate group compared to the placebo group was observed. However, treatment with risedronate did not result in a reduction in the risk of fracture in pediatric patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. In risedronate sodium-treated subjects, no mineralization defects were noted in paired bone biopsy specimens obtained at baseline and month 12.
The overall safety profile of risedronate in OI patients treated for up to 12 months was generally similar to that of adults with osteoporosis. However, there was an increased incidence of vomiting compared to placebo. In this study, vomiting was observed in 15% of children treated with risedronate and 6% of patients treated with placebo. Other adverse events reported in greater than or equal to 10% of patients treated with risedronate and with a higher frequency than placebo were: pain in the extremity (21% with risedronate versus 16% with placebo), headache (20% versus 8%), back pain (17% versus 10%), pain (15% versus 10%), upper abdominal pain (11% versus 8%), and bone pain (10% versus 4%).
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