RISPERDAL CONSTA

RISPERDAL CONSTA- risperidone
Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

WARNING: INCREASED MORTALITY IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH DEMENTIA-RELATED PSYCHOSIS

Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. RISPERDAL CONSTA® is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

1.1 Schizophrenia

RISPERDAL CONSTA® (risperidone) is indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].

1.2 Bipolar Disorder

RISPERDAL CONSTA® is indicated as monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy to lithium or valproate for the maintenance treatment of Bipolar I Disorder [see Clinical Studies (14.2 , 14.3)].

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

For patients who have never taken oral RISPERDAL® , it is recommended to establish tolerability with oral RISPERDAL® prior to initiating treatment with RISPERDAL CONSTA®.

RISPERDAL CONSTA® should be administered every 2 weeks by deep intramuscular (IM) deltoid or gluteal injection. Each injection should be administered by a health care professional using the appropriate enclosed safety needle [see Dosage and Administration (2.8)]. For deltoid administration, use the 1-inch needle alternating injections between the two arms. For gluteal administration, use the 2-inch needle alternating injections between the two buttocks. Do not administer intravenously.

2.1 Schizophrenia

The recommended dose for the treatment of schizophrenia is 25 mg IM every 2 weeks. Although dose response for effectiveness has not been established for RISPERDAL CONSTA® , some patients not responding to 25 mg may benefit from a higher dose of 37.5 mg or 50 mg. The maximum dose should not exceed 50 mg RISPERDAL CONSTA® every 2 weeks. No additional benefit was observed with dosages greater than 50 mg RISPERDAL CONSTA® ; however, a higher incidence of adverse effects was observed.

The efficacy of RISPERDAL CONSTA® in the treatment of schizophrenia has not been evaluated in controlled clinical trials for longer than 12 weeks. Although controlled studies have not been conducted to answer the question of how long patients with schizophrenia should be treated with RISPERDAL CONSTA® , oral risperidone has been shown to be effective in delaying time to relapse in longer-term use. It is recommended that responding patients be continued on treatment with RISPERDAL CONSTA® at the lowest dose needed. The physician who elects to use RISPERDAL CONSTA® for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term risks and benefits of the drug for the individual patient.

2.2 Bipolar Disorder

The recommended dose for monotherapy or adjunctive therapy to lithium or valproate for the maintenance treatment of Bipolar I Disorder is 25 mg IM every 2 weeks. Some patients may benefit from a higher dose of 37.5 mg or 50 mg. Dosages above 50 mg have not been studied in this population. The physician who elects to use RISPERDAL CONSTA® for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term risks and benefits of the drug for the individual patient.

2.3 General Dosing Information

A lower initial dose of 12.5 mg may be appropriate when clinical factors warrant dose adjustment, such as in patients with hepatic or renal impairment, for certain drug interactions that increase risperidone plasma concentrations [see Drug Interactions (7.11)] or in patients who have a history of poor tolerability to psychotropic medications. The efficacy of the 12.5 mg dose has not been investigated in clinical trials.

Oral RISPERDAL® (or another antipsychotic medication) should be given with the first injection of RISPERDAL CONSTA® and continued for 3 weeks (and then discontinued) to ensure that adequate therapeutic plasma concentrations are maintained prior to the main release phase of risperidone from the injection site [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Upward dose adjustment should not be made more frequently than every 4 weeks. The clinical effects of this dose adjustment should not be anticipated earlier than 3 weeks after the first injection with the higher dose.

In patients with clinical factors such as hepatic or renal impairment or certain drug interactions that increase risperidone plasma concentrations [see Drug Interactions (7.11)] , dose reduction as low as 12.5 mg may be appropriate. The efficacy of the 12.5 mg dose has not been investigated in clinical trials.

Do not combine two different dose strengths of RISPERDAL CONSTA® in a single administration.

2.4 Dosage in Special Populations

Elderly

For elderly patients treated with RISPERDAL CONSTA® , the recommended dosage is 25 mg IM every 2 weeks. Oral RISPERDAL® (or another antipsychotic medication) should be given with the first injection of RISPERDAL CONSTA® and should be continued for 3 weeks to ensure that adequate therapeutic plasma concentrations are maintained prior to the main release phase of risperidone from the injection site [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Renal or Hepatic Impairment

Patients with renal or hepatic impairment should be treated with titrated doses of oral RISPERDAL® prior to initiating treatment with RISPERDAL CONSTA®. The recommended starting dose is 0.5 mg oral RISPERDAL® twice daily during the first week, which can be increased to 1 mg twice daily or 2 mg once daily during the second week. If a total daily dose of at least 2 mg oral RISPERDAL® is well tolerated, an injection of 25 mg RISPERDAL CONSTA® can be administered every 2 weeks. Oral supplementation should be continued for 3 weeks after the first injection until the main release of risperidone from the injection site has begun. In some patients, slower titration may be medically appropriate. Alternatively, a starting dose of RISPERDAL CONSTA® of 12.5 mg may be appropriate. The efficacy of the 12.5 mg dose has not been investigated in clinical trials.

Patients with renal impairment may have less ability to eliminate risperidone than normal adults. Patients with impaired hepatic function may have an increase in the free fraction of the risperidone, possibly resulting in an enhanced effect [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Elderly patients and patients with a predisposition to hypotensive reactions or for whom such reactions would pose a particular risk should be instructed in nonpharmacologic interventions that help to reduce the occurrence of orthostatic hypotension (e.g., sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes before attempting to stand in the morning and slowly rising from a seated position). These patients should avoid sodium depletion or dehydration, and circumstances that accentuate hypotension (alcohol intake, high ambient temperature, etc.). Monitoring of orthostatic vital signs should be considered [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].

2.5 Reinitiation of Treatment in Patients Previously Discontinued

There are no data to specifically address reinitiation of treatment. When restarting patients who have had an interval off treatment with RISPERDAL CONSTA® , supplementation with oral RISPERDAL® (or another antipsychotic medication) should be administered.

2.6 Switching from Other Antipsychotics

There are no systematically collected data to specifically address switching patients from other antipsychotics to RISPERDAL CONSTA® , or concerning concomitant administration with other antipsychotics. Previous antipsychotics should be continued for 3 weeks after the first injection of RISPERDAL CONSTA® to ensure that therapeutic concentrations are maintained until the main release phase of risperidone from the injection site has begun [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. For patients who have never taken oral RISPERDAL® , it is recommended to establish tolerability with oral RISPERDAL® prior to initiating treatment with RISPERDAL CONSTA®. As recommended with other antipsychotic medications, the need for continuing existing EPS medication should be re-evaluated periodically.

2.7 Co-Administration of RISPERDAL CONSTA® with Certain Other Medications

Co-administration of carbamazepine and other CYP 3A4 enzyme inducers (e.g., phenytoin, rifampin, phenobarbital) with risperidone would be expected to cause decreases in the plasma concentrations of the sum of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone combined, which could lead to decreased efficacy of RISPERDAL CONSTA® treatment. The dose of risperidone needs to be titrated accordingly for patients receiving these enzyme inducers, especially during initiation or discontinuation of therapy with these inducers [see Drug Interactions (7.11)]. At the initiation of therapy with carbamazepine or other known CYP 3A4 hepatic enzyme inducers, patients should be closely monitored during the first 4–8 weeks, since the dose of RISPERDAL CONSTA® may need to be adjusted. A dose increase, or additional oral RISPERDAL® , may need to be considered. On discontinuation of carbamazepine or other CYP 3A4 hepatic enzyme inducers, the dosage of RISPERDAL CONSTA® should be re-evaluated and, if necessary, decreased. Patients may be placed on a lower dose of RISPERDAL CONSTA® between 2 to 4 weeks before the planned discontinuation of carbamazepine or other CYP 3A4 inducers to adjust for the expected increase in plasma concentrations of risperidone plus 9-hydroxyrisperidone. For patients treated with the recommended dose of 25 mg RISPERDAL CONSTA® and discontinuing from carbamazepine or other CYP3A4 enzyme inducers, it is recommended to continue treatment with the 25-mg dose unless clinical judgment necessitates lowering the RISPERDAL CONSTA® dose to 12.5 mg or necessitates interruption of RISPERDAL CONSTA® treatment. The efficacy of the 12.5 mg dose has not been investigated in clinical trials.

Fluoxetine and paroxetine, CYP 2D6 inhibitors, have been shown to increase the plasma concentration of risperidone 2.5–2.8 fold and 3–9 fold respectively. Fluoxetine did not affect the plasma concentration of 9-hydroxyrisperidone. Paroxetine lowered the concentration of 9-hydroxyrisperidone by about 10%. The dose of risperidone needs to be titrated accordingly when fluoxetine or paroxetine is co-administered. When either concomitant fluoxetine or paroxetine is initiated or discontinued, the physician should re-evaluate the dose of RISPERDAL CONSTA®. When initiation of fluoxetine or paroxetine is considered, patients may be placed on a lower dose of RISPERDAL CONSTA® between 2 to 4 weeks before the planned start of fluoxetine or paroxetine therapy to adjust for the expected increase in plasma concentrations of risperidone. When fluoxetine or paroxetine is initiated in patients receiving the recommended dose of 25 mg RISPERDAL CONSTA® , it is recommended to continue treatment with the 25 mg dose unless clinical judgment necessitates lowering the RISPERDAL CONSTA® dose to 12.5 mg or necessitates interruption of RISPERDAL CONSTA® treatment. When RISPERDAL CONSTA® is initiated in patients already receiving fluoxetine or paroxetine, a starting dose of 12.5 mg can be considered. The efficacy of the 12.5 mg dose has not been investigated in clinical trials. The effects of discontinuation of concomitant fluoxetine or paroxetine therapy on the pharmacokinetics of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone have not been studied. [see Drug Interactions (7.11)]

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