Limited data from published literature reports the presence of risperidone and its metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, in human breast milk at relative infant dose ranging between 2.3% and 4.7% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage. There are reports of sedation, failure to thrive, jitteriness, and extrapyramidal symptoms (tremors and abnormal muscle movements) in breastfed infants exposed to risperidone (see Clinical Considerations). Risperidone has been detected in plasma in adult subjects up to 8 weeks after a single-dose administration of RISPERDAL CONSTA® [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] , and the clinical significance on the breastfed infant is not known. There is no information on the effects of risperidone on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for RISPERDAL CONSTA® and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from RISPERDAL CONSTA® or from the mother’s underlying condition.
Infants exposed to RISPERDAL CONSTA® through breastmilk should be monitored for excess sedation, failure to thrive, jitteriness, and extrapyramidal symptoms (tremors and abnormal muscle movements).
Based on the pharmacologic action of risperidone (D2 receptor antagonism), treatment with RISPERDAL CONSTA® may result in an increase in serum prolactin levels, which may lead to a reversible reduction in fertility in females of reproductive potential [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
Safety and effectiveness of RISPERDAL CONSTA® in pediatric patients have not been established. However, juvenile animal toxicology studies have been conducted with oral risperidone.
Juvenile Animal Studies
Juvenile dogs were treated with oral risperidone from weeks 10 to 50 of age (equivalent to the period of childhood through adolescence in humans), at doses of 0.31, 1.25, or 5 mg/kg/day, which are 1.2, 3.4 and 13.5 times the MRHD of 6 mg/day for children, based on mg/m2 body surface area. Bone length and density were decreased with a no-effect dose of 0.31 mg/kg/day; this dose produced plasma AUC of risperidone plus its active metabolite paliperidone (9-hydroxy-risperidone) that were similar to those in children and adolescents receiving the MRHD of 6 mg/day. In addition, sexual maturation was delayed at all doses in both males and females. The above effects showed little or no reversibility in females after a 12 week drug-free recovery period. Juvenile rats, treated with oral risperidone from days 12 to 50 of age (equivalent to the period of infancy through adolescence in humans) showed impaired learning and memory performance (reversible only in females), with a no-effect dose of 0.63 mg/kg/day which is 0.5 times the MRHD of 6 mg/day for children, based on mg/m2 body surface area. This dose produced plasma AUC of risperidone plus paliperidone about half the exposure observed in humans at the MRHD. No other consistent effects on neurobehavioral or reproductive development were seen up to the highest tested dose of 1.25 mg/kg/day which is 1 time the MRHD and produced plasma AUC of risperidone plus paliperidone that were about two thirds of those observed in humans at the MRHD of 6 mg/day for children.
In an open-label study, 57 clinically stable, elderly patients (≥ 65 years old) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder received RISPERDAL CONSTA® every 2 weeks for up to 12 months. In general, no differences in the tolerability of RISPERDAL CONSTA® were observed between otherwise healthy elderly and nonelderly patients. Therefore, dosing recommendations for otherwise healthy elderly patients are the same as for nonelderly patients. Because elderly patients exhibit a greater tendency to orthostatic hypotension than nonelderly patients, elderly patients should be instructed in nonpharmacologic interventions that help to reduce the occurrence of orthostatic hypotension (e.g., sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes before attempting to stand in the morning and slowly rising from a seated position). In addition, monitoring of orthostatic vital signs should be considered in elderly patients for whom orthostatic hypotension is of concern [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].
Concomitant use with Furosemide in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis
In two of four placebo-controlled trials in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis, a higher incidence of mortality was observed in patients treated with furosemide plus oral risperidone when compared to patients treated with oral risperidone alone or with oral placebo plus furosemide. No pathological mechanism has been identified to explain this finding, and no consistent pattern for cause of death was observed. An increase of mortality in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis was seen with the use of oral risperidone regardless of concomitant use with furosemide. RISPERDAL CONSTA® is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis. [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
RISPERDAL CONSTA® (risperidone) is not a controlled substance.
RISPERDAL CONSTA® has not been systematically studied in animals or humans for its potential for abuse. Because RISPERDAL CONSTA® is to be administered by health care professionals, the potential for misuse or abuse by patients is low.
RISPERDAL CONSTA® has not been systematically studied in animals or humans for its potential for tolerance or physical dependence.
No cases of overdose were reported in premarketing studies with RISPERDAL CONSTA®. Because RISPERDAL CONSTA® is to be administered by health care professionals, the potential for overdosage by patients is low.
In premarketing experience with oral RISPERDAL® , there were eight reports of acute RISPERDAL® overdosage, with estimated doses ranging from 20 to 300 mg and no fatalities. In general, reported signs and symptoms were those resulting from an exaggeration of the drug’s known pharmacological effects, i.e., drowsiness and sedation, tachycardia and hypotension, and extrapyramidal symptoms. One case, involving an estimated overdose of 240 mg, was associated with hyponatremia, hypokalemia, prolonged QT, and widened QRS. Another case, involving an estimated overdose of 36 mg, was associated with a seizure.
Postmarketing experience with oral RISPERDAL® includes reports of acute overdose, with estimated doses of up to 360 mg. In general, the most frequently reported signs and symptoms are those resulting from an exaggeration of the drug’s known pharmacological effects, i.e., drowsiness, sedation, tachycardia, hypotension, and extrapyramidal symptoms. Other adverse reactions reported since market introduction related to oral RISPERDAL® overdose include prolonged QT interval and convulsions. Torsade de pointes has been reported in association with combined overdose of oral RISPERDAL® and paroxetine.
In case of acute overdosage, establish and maintain an airway and ensure adequate oxygenation and ventilation. Cardiovascular monitoring should commence immediately and should include continuous electrocardiographic monitoring to detect possible arrhythmias. If antiarrhythmic therapy is administered, disopyramide, procainamide, and quinidine carry a theoretical hazard of QT prolonging effects that might be additive to those of risperidone. Similarly, it is reasonable to expect that the alpha-blocking properties of bretylium might be additive to those of risperidone, resulting in problematic hypotension.
There is no specific antidote to risperidone. Therefore, appropriate supportive measures should be instituted. The possibility of multiple drug involvement should be considered. Hypotension and circulatory collapse should be treated with appropriate measures, such as intravenous fluids and/or sympathomimetic agents (epinephrine and dopamine should not be used, since beta stimulation may worsen hypotension in the setting of risperidone-induced alpha blockade). In cases of severe extrapyramidal symptoms, anticholinergic medication should be administered. Close medical supervision and monitoring should continue until the patient recovers.
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