Limited data from published literature reports the presence of risperidone and its metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, in human breast milk at relative infant dose ranging between 2.3% and 4.7% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage. There are reports of sedation, failure to thrive, jitteriness, and extrapyramidal symptoms (tremors and abnormal muscle movements) in breastfed infants exposed to risperidone (see Clinical Considerations). There is no information on the effects of risperidone on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for risperidone and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from risperidone or from the mother’s underlying condition.
Infants exposed to risperidone through breastmilk should be monitored for excess sedation, failure to thrive, jitteriness, and extrapyramidal symptoms (tremors and abnormal muscle movements).
Based on the pharmacologic action of risperidone (D2 receptor antagonism), treatment with risperidone may result in an increase in serum prolactin levels, which may lead to a reversible reduction in fertility in females of reproductive potential [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
Approved Pediatric Indications
The efficacy and safety of risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia were demonstrated in 417 adolescents, aged 13 — 17 years, in two short-term (6 and 8 weeks, respectively) double-blind controlled trials [see Indications and Usage (1.1), Adverse Reactions (6.1), and Clinical Studies (14.1)].Additional safety and efficacy information was also assessed in one long-term (6-month) open-label extension study in 284 of these adolescent patients with schizophrenia.
Safety and effectiveness of risperidone in children less than 13 years of age with schizophrenia have not been established.
Bipolar I Disorder
The efficacy and safety of risperidone in the short-term treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder in 169 children and adolescent patients, aged 10 — 17 years, were demonstrated in one double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-week trial [see Indications and Usage (1.2), Adverse Reactions (6.1), and Clinical Studies (14.2)].
Safety and effectiveness of risperidone in children less than 10 years of age with bipolar disorder have not been established.
The efficacy and safety of risperidone in the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder were established in two 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in 156 children and adolescent patients, aged 5 to 16 years [see Indications and Usage (1.3) , Adverse Reactions (6.1) and Clinical Studies (14.4)]. Additional safety information was also assessed in a long-term study in patients with autistic disorder, or in short- and long-term studies in more than 1200 pediatric patients with psychiatric disorders other than autistic disorder, schizophrenia, or bipolar mania who were of similar age and weight, and who received similar dosages of risperidone as patients treated for irritability associated with autistic disorder.
A third study was a 6-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a lower than recommended dose of risperidone in subjects 5 to 17 years of age with autistic disorder and associated irritability, and related behavioral symptoms. There were two weight-based, fixed doses of risperidone (high-dose and low-dose). The high dose was 1.25 mg per day for patients weighing 20 to < 45 kg, and it was 1.75 mg per day for patients weighing ≥ 45 kg. The low dose was 0.125 mg per day for patients weighing 20 to < 45 kg, and it was 0.175 mg per day for patients weighing ≥ 45 kg. The study demonstrated the efficacy of high-dose risperidone, but it did not demonstrate efficacy for low-dose risperidone.
Adverse Reactions in Pediatric Patients
In clinical trials in 1885 children and adolescents treated with risperidone, 2 (0.1%) patients were reported to have tardive dyskinesia, which resolved on discontinuation of risperidone treatment [see also Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Weight gain has been observed in children and adolescents during treatment with risperidone. Clinical monitoring of weight is recommended during treatment.
Data derive from short-term placebo-controlled trials and longer-term uncontrolled studies in pediatric patients (ages 5 to 17 years) with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autistic disorder, or other psychiatric disorders. In the short-term trials (3 to 8 weeks), the mean weight gain for risperidone-treated patients was 2 kg, compared to 0.6 kg for placebo-treated patients. In these trials, approximately 33% of the risperidone group had weight gain ≥7%, compared to 7% in the placebo group. In longer-term, uncontrolled, open-label pediatric studies, the mean weight gain was 5.5 kg at Week 24 and 8 kg at Week 48 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) and Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
Somnolence was frequently observed in placebo-controlled clinical trials of pediatric patients with autistic disorder. Most cases were mild or moderate in severity. These events were most often of early onset with peak incidence occurring during the first two weeks of treatment, and transient with a median duration of 16 days. Somnolence was the most commonly observed adverse reaction in the clinical trial of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, as well as in the schizophrenia trials in adolescents. As was seen in the autistic disorder trials, these adverse reactions were most often of early onset and transient in duration [see Adverse Reactions (6.1 and 6.2)]. Patients experiencing persistent somnolence may benefit from a change in dosing regimen [see Dosage and Administration (2.1,2.2, and 2.3)].
Risperidone has been shown to elevate prolactin levels in children and adolescents as well as in adults [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of up to 8 weeks duration in children and adolescents (aged 5 to 17 years) with autistic disorder or psychiatric disorders other than autistic disorder, schizophrenia, or bipolar mania, 49% of patients who received risperidone had elevated prolactin levels compared to 2% of patients who received placebo. Similarly, in placebo-controlled trials in children and adolescents (aged 10 to 17 years) with bipolar disorder, or adolescents (aged 13 to 17 years) with schizophrenia, 82-87% of patients who received risperidone had elevated levels of prolactin compared to 3-7% of patients on placebo. Increases were dose-dependent and generally greater in females than in males across indications.
In clinical trials in 1885 children and adolescents, galactorrhea was reported in 0.8% of risperidone-treated patients and gynecomastia was reported in 2.3% of risperidone-treated patients.
Growth and Sexual Maturation
The long-term effects of risperidone on growth and sexual maturation have not been fully evaluated in children and adolescents.
Juvenile Animal Studies
Juvenile dogs were treated with oral risperidone from weeks 10 to 50 of age (equivalent to the period of childhood through adolescence in humans), at doses of 0.31, 1.25, or 5 mg/kg/day, which are 1.2, 3.4, and 13.5 times the MRHD of 6 mg/day for children, based on mg/m2 body surface area. Bone length and density were decreased with a no-effect dose of 0.31 mg/kg/day; this dose produced plasma AUC of risperidone plus its active metabolite paliperidone (9-hydroxy-risperidone) that were similar to those in children and adolescents receiving the MRHD of 6 mg/day. In addition, sexual maturation was delayed at all doses in both males and females. The above effects showed little or no reversibility in females after a 12 week drug-free recovery period.
Juvenile rats, treated with oral risperidone from days 12 to 50 of age (equivalent to the period of infancy through adolescence in humans) showed impaired learning and memory performance (reversible only in females), with a no-effect dose of 0.63 mg/kg/day which is 0.5 times the MRHD of 6 mg/day for children, based on mg/m2 body surface area. This dose produced plasma AUC of risperidone plus paliperidone about half the exposure observed in humans at the MRHD. No other consistent effects on neurobehavioral or reproductive development were seen up to the highest tested dose of 1.25 mg/kg/day which is 1 time the MRHD and produced plasma AUC of risperidone plus paliperidone that were about two thirds of those observed in humans at the MRHD of 6 mg/day for children.
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