The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of ropinirole. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions
Withdrawal symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]
In vitro metabolism studies showed that CYP1A2 is the major enzyme responsible for the metabolism of ropinirole. There is thus the potential for inducers or inhibitors of this enzyme to alter the clearance of ropinirole. Therefore, if therapy with a drug known to be a potent inducer or inhibitor of CYP1A2 is stopped or started during treatment with ropinirole tablets, adjustment of the dose of ropinirole tablets may be required. Coadministration of ciprofloxacin, an inhibitor of CYP1A2, increases the AUC and Cmax of ropinirole [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Cigarette smoking is expected to increase the clearance of ropinirole since CYP1A2 is known to be induced by smoking [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Population pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that higher doses of estrogens (usually associated with hormone replacement therapy [HRT]) reduced the clearance of ropinirole. Starting or stopping HRT may require adjustment of dosage of ropinirole tablets [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Because ropinirole is a dopamine agonist, it is possible that dopamine antagonists such as neuroleptics (e.g., phenothiazines, butyrophenones, thioxanthenes) or metoclopramide may reduce the efficacy of ropinirole tablets.
There are no adequate data on the developmental risk associated with the use of ropinirole tablets in pregnant women. In animal studies, ropinirole had adverse effects on development when administered to pregnant rats at doses similar to (neurobehavioral impairment) or greater than (teratogenicity and embryolethality at >36 times) the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) for Parkinson’s disease. Ropinirole doses associated with teratogenicity and embryolethality in pregnant rats were associated with maternal toxicity. In pregnant rabbits, ropinirole potentiated the teratogenic effects of L-dopa when these drugs were administered in combination [see Data].
In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and of miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in the indicated populations is unknown.
Animal Data :
Oral administration of ropinirole (0, 20, 60, 90, 120, or 150 mg/kg/day) to pregnant rats during organogenesis resulted in embryolethality, increased incidence of fetal malformations (digit, cardiovascular, and neural tube defects) and variations, and decreased fetal weight at the two highest doses. These doses were also associated with maternal toxicity. The highest no-effect dose for adverse effects on embryofetal development (90 mg/kg/day) is approximately 36 times the MRHD for Parkinson’s disease (24 mg/day) on a body surface area (mg/m2) basis.
No effect on embryofetal development was observed in rabbits when ropinirole was administered alone during organogenesis at oral doses of 0, 1, 5, or 20 mg/kg/day (up to 16 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). In pregnant rabbits, there was a greater incidence and severity of fetal malformations (primarily digit defects) when ropinirole (10 mg/kg/day) was administered orally during gestation in combination with L-dopa (250 mg/kg/day) than when L-dopa was administered alone. This drug combination was also associated with maternal toxicity.
Oral administration of ropinirole (0, 0.1, 1, or 10 mg/kg/day) to rats during late gestation and continuing throughout lactation resulted in neurobehavioral impairment (decreased startle response) and decreased body weight in offspring at the highest dose. The no-effect dose of 1 mg/kg/day is less than the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis.
There are no data on the presence of ropinirole in human milk, the effects of ropinirole on the breastfed infant, or the effects of ropinirole on milk production. However, inhibition of lactation is expected because ropinirole inhibits secretion of prolactin in humans. Ropinirole or metabolites, or both, are present in rat milk.
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for ropinirole tablets and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from ropinirole or from the underlying maternal condition.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Dose adjustment is not necessary in elderly (65 years and older) patients, as the dose of ropinirole tablets are individually titrated to clinical therapeutic response and tolerability. Pharmacokinetic trials conducted in patients demonstrated that oral clearance of ropinirole is reduced by 15% in patients older than 65 years compared with younger patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
In flexible-dose clinical trials of extended-release ropinirole for Parkinson’s disease, 387 patients were 65 years and older and 107 patients were 75 years and older. Among patients receiving extended-release ropinirole, hallucination was more common in elderly patients (10%) compared with non-elderly patients (2%). In these trials the incidence of overall adverse reactions increased with increasing age for both patients receiving extended-release ropinirole and placebo.
In the fixed-dose clinical trials of extended-release ropinirole, 176 patients were 65 years and older and 73 were 75 and older. Among patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease receiving extended-release ropinirole, vomiting and nausea were more common in patients greater than 65 years (5% and 9%, respectively) compared with patients less than 65 (1% and 7%, respectively).
No dose adjustment is necessary in patients with moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance of 30 to 50 mL/min). For patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis, a reduced maximum dose is recommended [see Dosage and Administration (2.2, 2.3), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
The use of ropinirole tablets in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance less than 30 mL/min) without regular dialysis has not been studied.
The pharmacokinetics of ropinirole have not been studied in patients with hepatic impairment.
The symptoms of overdose with ropinirole tablets are related to its dopaminergic activity. General supportive measures are recommended. Vital signs should be maintained, if necessary.
In the clinical trials, there have been patients who accidentally or intentionally took more than their prescribed dose of ropinirole. The largest overdose reported with ropinirole in clinical trials was 435 mg taken over a 7-day period (62.1 mg/day). Of patients who received a dose greater than 24 mg/day, reported symptoms included adverse events commonly reported during dopaminergic therapy (nausea, dizziness), as well as visual hallucinations, hyperhidrosis, claustrophobia, chorea, palpitations, asthenia, and nightmares. Additional symptoms reported in cases of overdose included vomiting, increased coughing, fatigue, syncope, vasovagal syncope, dyskinesia, agitation, chest pain, orthostatic hypotension, somnolence, and confusional state.
Ropinirole tablets contain ropinirole, a non-ergoline dopamine agonist, as the hydrochloride salt. The chemical name of ropinirole hydrochloride is 4-[2-(dipropylamino)ethyl]-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one and the empirical formula is C16 H24 N2 O•HCl. The molecular weight is 296.84 (260.38 as the free base).
The structural formula is:
Ropinirole hydrochloride, USP is a white to yellow solid with a melting range of 243° to 250°C and a solubility of 133 mg/mL in water.
Each circular, biconvex, film-coated tablets contains ropinirole hydrochloride USP equivalent to ropinirole free base, 0.25 mg, 0.5 mg, 1 mg, 2 mg, 3 mg, 4 mg, or 5 mg, respectively. Inactive ingredients consist of: croscarmellose sodium, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and one or more of the following: carmine, FD&C Blue No. 2 aluminum lake, FD&C Yellow No. 6 aluminum lake, hypromellose, iron oxides (iron oxide yellow, iron oxide red and iron oxide black), polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, titanium dioxide.
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