The following adverse reactions have been reported during post approval use of SABRIL worldwide. All adverse reactions that are not listed above as adverse reactions reported in clinical trials, that are not relatively common in the population and are not too vague to be useful are listed in this section. These reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size; therefore, it is not possible to estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Adverse reactions are categorized by system organ class.
Congenital cardiac defects, congenital external ear anomaly, congenital hemangioma, congenital hydronephrosis, congenital male genital malformation, congenital oral malformation, congenital vesicoureteric reflux, dentofacial anomaly, dysmorphism, fetal anticonvulsant syndrome, hamartomas, hip dysplasia, limb malformation, limb reduction defect, low set ears, renal aplasia, retinitis pigmentosa, supernumerary nipple, talipes
Ear Disorders: Deafness
Endocrine Disorders: Delayed puberty
Gastrointestinal Disorders: Gastrointestinal hemorrhage, esophagitis
General Disorders: Developmental delay, facial edema, malignant hyperthermia, multi-organ failure
Hepatobiliary Disorders: Cholestasis
Nervous System Disorders: Dystonia, encephalopathy, hypertonia, hypotonia, muscle spasticity, myoclonus, optic neuritis, dyskinesia
Psychiatric Disorders: Acute psychosis, apathy, delirium, hypomania, neonatal agitation, psychotic disorder
Respiratory Disorders: Laryngeal edema, pulmonary embolism, respiratory failure, stridor
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: Angioedema, maculo-papular rash, pruritus, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN)
Although phenytoin dose adjustments are not routinely required, dose adjustment of phenytoin should be considered if clinically indicated, since SABRIL may cause a moderate reduction in total phenytoin plasma levels [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
SABRIL may moderately increase the Cmax of clonazepam resulting in an increase of clonazepam-associated adverse reactions [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
There are no clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions between SABRIL and either phenobarbital or sodium valproate. Based on population pharmacokinetics, carbamazepine, clorazepate, primidone, and sodium valproate appear to have no effect on plasma concentrations of vigabatrin [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
SABRIL is unlikely to affect the efficacy of steroid oral contraceptives [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .
SABRIL decreases alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) plasma activity in up to 90% of patients. In some patients, these enzymes become undetectable. The suppression of ALT and AST activity by SABRIL may preclude the use of these markers, especially ALT, to detect early hepatic injury.
SABRIL may increase the amount of amino acids in the urine, possibly leading to a false positive test for certain rare genetic metabolic diseases (e.g., alpha aminoadipic aciduria).
Pregnancy Category C.
Vigabatrin produced developmental toxicity, including teratogenic and neurohistopathological effects, when administered to pregnant animals at clinically relevant doses. In addition, developmental neurotoxicity was observed in rats treated with vigabatrin during a period of postnatal development corresponding to the third trimester of human pregnancy. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. SABRIL should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Administration of vigabatrin (oral doses of 50 to 200 mg/kg) to pregnant rabbits throughout the period of organogenesis was associated with an increased incidence of malformations (cleft palate) and embryo-fetal death; these findings were observed in two separate studies. The no-effect dose for teratogenicity and embryolethality in rabbits (100 mg/kg) is approximately 1/2 the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 3 g/day on a body surface area (mg/m2) basis. In rats, oral administration of vigabatrin (50, 100, or 150 mg/kg) throughout organogenesis resulted in decreased fetal body weights and increased incidences of fetal anatomic variations. The no-effect dose for embryo-fetal toxicity in rats (50 mg/kg) is approximately 1/5 the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis. Oral administration of vigabatrin (50, 100, 150 mg/kg) to rats from the latter part of pregnancy through weaning produced long-term neurohistopathological (hippocampal vacuolation) and neurobehavioral (convulsions) abnormalities in the offspring. A no-effect dose for developmental neurotoxicity in rats was not established; the low-effect dose (50 mg/kg) is approximately 1/5 the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis.
In a published study, vigabatrin (300 or 450 mg/kg) was administered by intraperitoneal injection to a mutant mouse strain on a single day during organogenesis (day 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12). An increase in malformations (including cleft palate) was observed at both doses.
Oral administration of vigabatrin (5, 15, or 50 mg/kg) to young rats during the neonatal and juvenile periods of development (postnatal days 4-65) produced neurobehavioral (convulsions, neuromotor impairment, learning deficits) and neurohistopathological (brain vacuolation, decreased myelination, and retinal dysplasia) abnormalities in treated animals. The early postnatal period in rats is generally thought to correspond to late pregnancy in humans in terms of brain development. The no-effect dose for developmental neurotoxicity in juvenile rats (5 mg/kg) was associated with plasma vigabatrin exposures (AUC) less than 1/30 of those measured in pediatric patients receiving an oral dose of 50 mg/kg.
Pregnancy RegistryTo provide information regarding the effects of in utero exposure to SABRIL, physicians are advised to recommend that pregnant patients taking SABRIL enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) Pregnancy Registry. This can be done by calling the toll free number 1-888-233-2334, and must be done by patients themselves. Information on the registry can also be found at the website http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org/.
Vigabatrin is excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions from vigabatrin in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3, 5.4 )].
The safety and effectiveness of SABRIL as adjunctive treatment of refractory complex partial seizures in pediatric patients aged 10 to 16 years of age have been established [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. The dosing recommendation in this population varies according to age group and is weight based [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)]. Adverse reactions in this pediatric population are similar to those observed in the adult population [see Adverse Reactions, (6.1)].
The safety and effectiveness of SABRIL have not been established in pediatric patients under 10 years of age with refractory complex partial seizures.
The safety and effectiveness of SABRIL as monotherapy for pediatric patients with infantile spasms (1 month to 2 years of age) have been established [ see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Clinical Studies (14.2)].
Duration of therapy for infantile spasms was evaluated in a post hoc analysis of a Canadian Pediatric Epilepsy Network (CPEN) study of developmental outcomes in infantile spasms patients. This analysis suggests that a total duration of 6 months of vigabatrin therapy is adequate for the treatment of infantile spasms. However, prescribers must use their clinical judgment as to the most appropriate duration of use [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].
Oral administration of vigabatrin (5, 15, or 50 mg/kg) to young rats during the neonatal and juvenile periods of development (postnatal days 4-65) produced neurobehavioral (convulsions, neuromotor impairment, learning deficits) and neurohistopathological (brain gray matter vacuolation, decreased myelination, and retinal dysplasia) abnormalities. The no-effect dose for developmental neurotoxicity in juvenile rats (the lowest dose tested) was associated with plasma vigabatrin exposures (AUC) substantially less than those measured in pediatric patients at recommended doses. In dogs, oral administration of vigabatrin (30 or 100 mg/kg) during selected periods of juvenile development (postnatal days 22-112) produced neurohistopathological abnormalities (brain gray matter vacuolation). Neurobehavioral effects of vigabatrin were not assessed in the juvenile dog. A no-effect dose for neurohistopathology was not established in juvenile dogs; the lowest effect dose (30 mg/kg) was associated with plasma vigabatrin exposures lower than those measured in pediatric patients at recommended doses [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
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