SANCUSO — granisetron patch
Physicians Total Care, Inc.
Sancuso® (Granisetron Transdermal System) is indicated for the prevention of nausea and vomiting in patients receiving moderately and/or highly emetogenic chemotherapy regimens of up to 5 consecutive days duration.
The transdermal system (patch) should be applied to clean, dry, intact healthy skin on the upper outer arm. Sancuso should not be placed on skin that is red, irritated or damaged.
Each patch is packed in a pouch and should be applied directly after the pouch has been opened.
The patch should not be cut into pieces.
Apply a single patch to the upper outer arm a minimum of 24 hours before chemotherapy. The patch may be applied up to a maximum of 48 hours before chemotherapy as appropriate. Remove the patch a minimum of 24 hours after completion of chemotherapy. The patch can be worn for up to 7 days depending on the duration of the chemotherapy regimen.
Sancuso is a 52 cm2 patch containing 34.3 mg of granisetron. The patch releases 3.1 mg of granisetron per 24 hours for up to 7 days.
Sancuso is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to granisetron or to any of the components of the patch.
The use of granisetron in patients may mask a progressive ileus and/or gastric distention caused by the underlying condition.
In clinical trials with Sancuso, application site reactions were reported which were generally mild in intensity and did not lead to discontinuation of use. The incidence of reactions was comparable with placebo.
If severe reactions, or a generalized skin reaction occur (e.g. allergic rash, including erythematous, macular, papular rash or pruritus), the patch must be removed.
Granisetron may be affected by direct natural or artificial sunlight. Patients must be advised to cover the patch application site, e.g. with clothing, if there is a risk of exposure to sunlight throughout the period of wear and for 10 days following its removal because of a potential skin reaction (see Section 13.2).
The safety of Sancuso was evaluated in a total of 404 patients undergoing chemotherapy who participated in two double-blind, comparator studies with patch treatment durations of up to 7 days. The control groups included a total of 406 patients who received a daily dose of 2 mg oral granisetron, for 1 to 5 days.
Adverse reactions considered by the investigators as drug-related occurred in 8.7% (35/404) of patients receiving Sancuso and 7.1% (29/406) of patients receiving oral granisetron. The most common adverse reaction was constipation that occurred in 5.4% of patients in the Sancuso group and 3.0% of patients in the oral granisetron group.
Table 1 lists the treatment emergent adverse reactions that occurred in at least 3% of patients treated with Sancuso or oral granisetron.
|Body System Preferred Term||Sancuso TDSN=404(%)||Oral granisetronN=406(%)|
|Nervous system disorders|
5-HT3 receptor antagonists, such as granisetron, may be associated with arrhythmias or ECG abnormalities. Three ECGs were performed on 588 randomized patients in the Phase 3 study: at baseline before treatment, the first day of chemotherapy, and 5 to 7 days after starting chemotherapy. QTcF prolongation greater than 450 milliseconds was seen in a total of 11 (1.9%) patients after receiving granisetron, 8 (2.7%) on oral granisetron and 3 (1.1%) on the patch. No new QTcF prolongation greater than 480 milliseconds was observed in any patient in this study. No arrhythmias were detected in this study.
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Adverse events reported in clinical trials with other formulations of granisetron include the following:
Gastrointestinal: abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, elevation of ALT and AST levels, nausea and vomiting
Cardiovascular: Hypertension, hypotension, angina pectoris, atrial fibrillation and syncope have been observed rarely
Central Nervous System: dizziness, insomnia, headache, anxiety, somnolence and asthenia
Hypersensitivity: rare cases of hypersensitivity reactions, sometimes severe (e.g. anaphylaxis, shortness of breath, hypotension, urticaria) have been reported
Other: fever; events often associated with chemotherapy have also been reported: leucopenia, decreased appetite, anemia, alopecia, thrombocytopenia.
Granisetron does not induce or inhibit the cytochrome P-450 drug-metabolizing enzyme system in vitro. There have been no definitive drug-drug interaction studies to examine pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interaction with other drugs. However, in humans, granisetron hydrochloride injection has been safely administered with drugs representing benzodiazepines, neuroleptics and anti-ulcer medications commonly prescribed with antiemetic treatments. Granisetron hydrochloride injection also does not appear to interact with emetogenic cancer therapies. In agreement with these data, no clinically relevant drug interactions have been reported in clinical studies with Sancuso.
Because granisetron is metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P-450 drug-metabolizing enzymes (CYP1A1 and CYP3A4), inducers or inhibitors of these enzymes may change the clearance and hence, the half-life of granisetron. In addition, the activity of the cytochrome P-450 subfamily 3A4 (involved in the metabolism of some of the main narcotic analgesic agents) is not modified by granisetron hydrochloride in vitro. In in vitro human microsomal studies, ketoconazole inhibited ring oxidation of granisetron hydrochloride. However, the clinical significance of in vivo pharmacokinetic interactions with ketoconazole is not known. In a human pharmacokinetic study, hepatic enzyme induction with phenobarbital resulted in a 25% increase in total plasma clearance of intravenous granisetron hydrochloride. The clinical significance of this change is not known.
Pregnancy Category B
Reproduction studies with granisetron hydrochloride have been performed in pregnant rats at intravenous doses up to 9 mg/kg/day (54 mg/m2 /day, about 24 times the recommended human dose delivered by the Sancuso patch, based on body surface area) and oral doses up to 125 mg/kg/day (750 mg/m2 /day, about 326 times the recommended human dose with Sancuso based on body surface area). Reproduction studies have been performed in pregnant rabbits at intravenous doses up to 3 mg/kg/day (36 mg/m2 /day, about 16 times the human dose with Sancuso based on body surface area) and at oral doses up to 32 mg/kg/day (384 mg/m2 /day, about 167 times the human dose with Sancuso based on body surface area). These studies did not reveal any evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to granisetron. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, Sancuso should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
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