SAPHRIS- asenapine maleate tablet
Forest Laboratories, Inc.
Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. SAPHRIS ® (asenapine) is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2)].
SAPHRIS is indicated for:
- Schizophrenia [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]
- Acute treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with Bipolar I disorder as monotherapy or adjunctive treatment to lithium or valproate [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]
SAPHRIS is a sublingual tablet. To ensure optimal absorption, patients should be instructed to place the tablet under the tongue and allow it to dissolve completely. The tablet will dissolve in saliva within seconds. SAPHRIS sublingual tablets should not be split, crushed, chewed, or swallowed [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Patients should be instructed to not eat or drink for 10 minutes after administration [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Patient Counseling Information (17)].
The recommended dose of SAPHRIS is 5 mg given twice daily. In short term controlled trials, there was no suggestion of added benefit with a 10 mg twice daily dose, but there was a clear increase in certain adverse reactions. If tolerated, daily dosage can be increased to 10 mg twice daily after one week. The safety of doses above 10 mg twice daily has not been evaluated in clinical studies [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].
Acute Treatment of Manic or Mixed Episodes:
Monotherapy in Adults: The recommended starting dose of SAPHRIS is 10 mg twice daily. The dose can be decreased to 5 mg twice daily if warranted by adverse effects. The safety of doses above 10 mg twice daily has not been evaluated in clinical trials [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].
Monotherapy in Pediatric Patients: The recommended dose of SAPHRIS is 2.5 mg to 10 mg twice daily in pediatric patients 10 to 17 years of age, and dose may be adjusted for individual response and tolerability. The starting dose of SAPHRIS is 2.5 mg twice daily. After 3 days, the dose can be increased to 5 mg twice daily, and from 5 mg to 10 mg twice daily after 3 additional days. Pediatric patients aged 10 to 17 years appear to be more sensitive to dystonia with initial dosing with SAPHRIS when the recommended escalation schedule is not followed [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]. The safety of doses greater than 10 mg twice daily has not been evaluated in clinical trials [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Adjunctive Therapy in Adults: The recommended starting dose of SAPHRIS is 5 mg twice daily when administered as adjunctive therapy with either lithium or valproate. Depending on the clinical response and tolerability in the individual patient, the dose can be increased to 10 mg twice daily. The safety of doses above 10 mg twice daily as adjunctive therapy with lithium or valproate has not been evaluated in clinical trials.
If SAPHRIS is used for extended periods in bipolar disorder, the health care provider should periodically re-evaluate the long-term risks and benefits of the drug for the individual patient.
- SAPHRIS 2.5 mg tablets, black cherry flavor, are round, white to off-white sublingual tablets, with a hexagon on one side.
- SAPHRIS 5 mg tablets, black cherry flavor, are round, white to off-white sublingual tablets, with “5” on one side within a circle.
- SAPHRIS 10 mg tablets, black cherry flavor, are round, white to off-white sublingual tablets, with “10” on one side within a circle.
SAPHRIS is contraindicated in patients with:
- Severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C) [see Specific Populations (8.7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
- A history of hypersensitivity reactions to asenapine. Reactions have included anaphylaxis and angioedema [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6), Adverse Reactions (6) and Patient Counseling Information (17)].
Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Analyses of 17 placebo-controlled trials (modal duration of 10 weeks), largely in patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs, revealed a risk of death in the drug-treated patients of between 1.6 to 1.7 times that seen in placebo-treated patients. Over the course of a typical 10-week controlled trial, the rate of death in drug-treated patients was about 4.5%, compared to a rate of about 2.6% in the placebo group. Although the causes of death were varied, most of the deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (e.g., heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (e.g., pneumonia) in nature. Observational studies suggest that, similar to atypical antipsychotic drugs, treatment with conventional antipsychotic drugs may increase mortality. The extent to which the findings of increased mortality in observational studies may be attributed to the antipsychotic drug as opposed to some characteristic(s) of the patients is not clear. SAPHRIS is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
5.2 Cerebrovascular Adverse Events, Including Stroke, In Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis
In placebo-controlled trials with risperidone, aripiprazole, and olanzapine in elderly subjects with dementia, there was a higher incidence of cerebrovascular adverse reactions (cerebrovascular accidents and transient ischemic attacks) including fatalities compared to placebo-treated subjects. SAPHRIS is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis [see also Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
A potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) has been reported in association with administration of antipsychotic drugs, including SAPHRIS. Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and cardiac dysrhythmia). Additional signs may include elevated creatine phosphokinase, myoglobinuria (rhabdomyolysis), and acute renal failure.
The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. It is important to exclude cases where the clinical presentation includes both serious medical illness (e.g. pneumonia, systemic infection) and untreated or inadequately treated extrapyramidal signs and symptoms (EPS). Other important considerations in the differential diagnosis include central anticholinergic toxicity, heat stroke, drug fever, and primary central nervous system pathology.
The management of NMS should include: 1) immediate discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs and other drugs not essential to concurrent therapy; 2) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring; and 3) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems for which specific treatments are available. There is no general agreement about specific pharmacological treatment regimens for NMS.
If a patient requires antipsychotic drug treatment after recovery from NMS, the potential reintroduction of drug therapy should be carefully considered. The patient should be carefully monitored, since recurrences of NMS have been reported.
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