14.1 Major Depressive Disorder 14.2 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder 14.3 Bulimia Nervosa 14.4 Panic Disorder
14 CLINICAL STUDIES
14.1 Major Depressive Disorder
Adult — The efficacy of fluoxetine was studied in 5 and 6 week placebo-controlled trials with depressed adult and geriatric outpatients (greater than or equal to 18 years of age) whose diagnoses corresponded most closely to the DSM-III (currently DSM-IV) category of Major Depressive Disorder. Fluoxetine was shown to be significantly more effective than placebo as measured by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D). Fluoxetine was also significantly more effective than placebo on the HAM-D subscores for depressed mood, sleep disturbance, and the anxiety subfactor.
Two 6 week controlled studies (N = 671, randomized) comparing fluoxetine 20 mg and placebo have shown fluoxetine 20 mg daily to be effective in the treatment of elderly patients (greater than or equal to 60 years of age) with Major Depressive Disorder. In these studies, fluoxetine produced a significantly higher rate of response and remission as defined, respectively, by a 50% decrease in the HAM-D score and a total endpoint HAM-D score of less than or equal to 8. Fluoxetine was well tolerated and the rate of treatment discontinuations due to adverse reactions did not differ between fluoxetine (12%) and placebo (9%).
A study was conducted involving depressed outpatients who had responded (modified HAMD-17 score of ≤ 7 during each of the last 3 weeks of open-label treatment and absence of Major Depressive Disorder by DSM-III-R criteria) by the end of an initial 12 week open-treatment phase on fluoxetine 20 mg/day. These patients (N = 298) were randomized to continuation on double-blind fluoxetine 20 mg/day or placebo. At 38 weeks (50 weeks total), a statistically significantly lower relapse rate (defined as symptoms sufficient to meet a diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder for 2 weeks or a modified HAMD-17 score of greater than or equal to 14 for 3 weeks) was observed for patients taking fluoxetine compared with those on placebo.
Pediatric (children and adolescents) — The efficacy of fluoxetine 20 mg/day in children and adolescents (N = 315 randomized; 170 children ages 8 to less than 13, 145 adolescents ages 13 to less than or equal to 18) was studied in two 8 to 9 week placebo-controlled clinical trials in depressed outpatients whose diagnoses corresponded most closely to the DSM-III-R or DSM-IV category of Major Depressive Disorder.
In both studies independently, fluoxetine produced a statistically significantly greater mean change on the Childhood Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) total score from baseline to endpoint than did placebo.
Subgroup analyses on the CDRS-R total score did not suggest any differential responsiveness on the basis of age or gender.
14.2 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Adult — The effectiveness of fluoxetine for the treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) was demonstrated in two 13 week, multicenter, parallel group studies (Studies 1 and 2) of adult outpatients who received fixed fluoxetine doses of 20, 40, or 60 mg/day (on a once-a-day schedule, in the morning) or placebo. Patients in both studies had moderate to severe OCD (DSM-III-R), with mean baseline ratings on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS, total score) ranging from 22 to 26. In Study 1, patients receiving fluoxetine experienced mean reductions of approximately 4 to 6 units on the YBOCS total score, compared with a 1 unit reduction for placebo patients. In Study 2, patients receiving fluoxetine experienced mean reductions of approximately 4 to 9 units on the YBOCS total score, compared with a 1 unit reduction for placebo patients. While there was no indication of a dose-response relationship for effectiveness in Study 1, a dose-response relationship was observed in Study 2, with numerically better responses in the 2 higher dose groups. The following table provides the outcome classification by treatment group on the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) improvement scale for Studies 1 and 2 combined:
|Outcome Classification||Placebo||20 mg||40 mg||60 mg|
|Very much improved||3%||8%||12%||19%|
Exploratory analyses for age and gender effects on outcome did not suggest any differential responsiveness on the basis of age or sex.
Pediatric (children and adolescents) — In one 13 week clinical trial in pediatric patients (N = 103 randomized; 75 children ages 7 to less than 13, 28 adolescents ages 13 to less than 18) with OCD (DSM-IV), patients received fluoxetine 10 mg/day for 2 weeks, followed by 20 mg/day for 2 weeks. The dose was then adjusted in the range of 20 to 60 mg/day on the basis of clinical response and tolerability. Fluoxetine produced a statistically significantly greater mean change from baseline to endpoint than did placebo as measured by the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS).
Subgroup analyses on outcome did not suggest any differential responsiveness on the basis of age or gender.
14.3 Bulimia Nervosa
The effectiveness of fluoxetine for the treatment of bulimia was demonstrated in two 8 week and one 16 week, multicenter, parallel group studies of adult outpatients meeting DSM-III-R criteria for bulimia. Patients in the 8 week studies received either 20 or 60 mg/day of fluoxetine or placebo in the morning. Patients in the 16 week study received a fixed fluoxetine dose of 60 mg/day (once a day) or placebo. Patients in these 3 studies had moderate to severe bulimia with median binge-eating and vomiting frequencies ranging from 7 to 10 per week and 5 to 9 per week, respectively. In these 3 studies, fluoxetine 60 mg, but not 20 mg, was statistically significantly superior to placebo in reducing the number of binge-eating and vomiting episodes per week. The statistically significantly superior effect of 60 mg versus placebo was present as early as Week 1 and persisted throughout each study. The fluoxetine-related reduction in bulimic episodes appeared to be independent of baseline depression as assessed by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. In each of these 3 studies, the treatment effect, as measured by differences between fluoxetine 60 mg and placebo on median reduction from baseline in frequency of bulimic behaviors at endpoint, ranged from 1 to 2 episodes per week for binge-eating and 2 to 4 episodes per week for vomiting. The size of the effect was related to baseline frequency, with greater reductions seen in patients with higher baseline frequencies. Although some patients achieved freedom from binge-eating and purging as a result of treatment, for the majority, the benefit was a partial reduction in the frequency of binge-eating and purging.
In a longer-term trial, 150 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for Bulimia Nervosa, purging subtype, who had responded during a single-blind, 8 week acute treatment phase with fluoxetine 60 mg/day, were randomized to continuation of fluoxetine 60 mg/day or placebo, for up to 52 weeks of observation for relapse. Response during the single-blind phase was defined by having achieved at least a 50% decrease in vomiting frequency compared with baseline. Relapse during the double-blind phase was defined as a persistent return to baseline vomiting frequency or physician judgment that the patient had relapsed. Patients receiving continued fluoxetine 60 mg/day experienced a significantly longer time to relapse over the subsequent 52 weeks compared with those receiving placebo.
14.4 Panic Disorder
The effectiveness of fluoxetine in the treatment of Panic Disorder was demonstrated in 2 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter studies of adult outpatients who had a primary diagnosis of Panic Disorder (DSM-IV), with or without agoraphobia.
Study 1 (N = 180 randomized) was a 12 week flexible-dose study. Fluoxetine was initiated at 10 mg/day for the first week, after which patients were dosed in the range of 20 to 60 mg/day on the basis of clinical response and tolerability. A statistically significantly greater percentage of fluoxetine-treated patients were free from panic attacks at endpoint than placebo-treated patients, 42% versus 28%, respectively.
Study 2 (N = 214 randomized) was a 12 week flexible-dose study. Fluoxetine was initiated at 10 mg/day for the first week, after which patients were dosed in a range of 20 to 60 mg/day on the basis of clinical response and tolerability. A statistically significantly greater percentage of fluoxetine-treated patients were free from panic attacks at endpoint than placebo-treated patients, 62% versus 44%, respectively.
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING
16.1 How Supplied
Fluoxetine Capsules USP 10 mg are available as white, opaque capsules in bottles of 100, 500 and 1000, printed PLIVA 647 in green band on cap and body.
Fluoxetine Capsules USP 20 mg are available as white, opaque capsules in bottles of 100, 500, 1000 and 2000, printed PLIVA 648 in green band on cap only.
PHARMACIST: Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP, with a child-resistant closure (as required).
16.2 Storage and Handling
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].
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