Sildenafil (Page 3 of 7)

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of sildenafil (marketed for both PAH and erectile dysfunction). Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Cardiovascular Events

In post-marketing experience with sildenafil at doses indicated for erectile dysfunction, serious cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and vascular events, including myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, ventricular arrhythmia, cerebrovascular hemorrhage, transient ischemic attack, hypertension, pulmonary hemorrhage, and subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhages have been reported in temporal association with the use of the drug. Most, but not all, of these patients had preexisting cardiovascular risk factors. Many of these events were reported to occur during or shortly after sexual activity, and a few were reported to occur shortly after the use of sildenafil without sexual activity. Others were reported to have occurred hours to days after use concurrent with sexual activity. It is not possible to determine whether these events are related directly to sildenafil, to sexual activity, to the patient’s underlying cardiovascular disease, or to a combination of these or other factors.

Nervous system

Seizure, seizure recurrence

Ophthalmologic

NAION [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) and Patient Counseling Information (17)].

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

Nitrates

Concomitant use of Sildenafil with nitrates in any form is contraindicated [see Contraindications (4) ].

Ritonavir and other Potent CYP3A Inhibitors

Concomitant use of Sildenafil with ritonavir and other potent CYP3A inhibitors is not recommended [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].

Other drugs that reduce blood pressure

Alpha blockers. In drug-drug interaction studies, sildenafil (25 mg, 50 mg, or 100 mg) and the alpha-blocker doxazosin (4 mg or 8 mg) were administered simultaneously to patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) stabilized on doxazosin therapy. In these study populations, mean additional reductions of supine systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 7/7 mmHg, 9/5 mmHg, and 8/4 mmHg, respectively, were observed. Mean additional reductions of standing blood pressure of 6/6 mmHg, 11/4 mmHg, and 4/5 mmHg, respectively, were also observed. There were infrequent reports of patients who experienced symptomatic postural hypotension. These reports included dizziness and light-headedness, but not syncope.

Amlodipine. When sildenafil 100 mg oral was co-administered with amlodipine, 5 mg or 10 mg oral, to hypertensive patients, the mean additional reduction on supine blood pressure was 8 mmHg systolic and 7 mmHg diastolic.

Monitor blood pressure when co-administering blood pressure lowering drugs with Sildenafil [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ].

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Limited published data from randomized controlled trials, case-controlled trials, and case series do not report a clear association with sildenafil and major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes when sildenafil is used during pregnancy. There are risks to the mother and fetus from untreated pulmonary arterial hypertension (see Clinical Considerations). Animal reproduction studies conducted with sildenafil showed no evidence of embryo-fetal toxicity or teratogenicity at doses up to 32- and 65-times the recommended human dose (RHD) of 20 mg three times a day in rats and rabbits, respectively [See Data ].

The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.

Clinical Considerations

Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk

Pregnant women with untreated pulmonary arterial hypertension are at risk for heart failure, stroke, preterm delivery, and maternal and fetal death.

Data

Animal Data

No evidence of teratogenicity, embryotoxicity, or fetotoxicity was observed in pregnant rats or rabbits dosed with sildenafil 200 mg/kg/day during organogenesis, a level that is, on a mg/m2 basis, 32- and 65-times, respectively, the recommended human dose (RHD) of 20 mg three times a day. In a rat pre- and postnatal development study, the no-observed-adverse-effect dose was 30 mg/kg/day (equivalent to 5-times the RHD on a mg/m2 basis).

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

Limited published data from a case report describe the presence of sildenafil and its active metabolite in human milk. There is insufficient information about the effects of sildenafil on the breastfed infant and no information on the effects of sildenafil on milk production. Limited clinical data during lactation preclude a clear determination of the risk of Sildenafil to an infant during lactation.

8.4 Pediatric Use

In a randomized, double-blind, multi-center, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-ranging study, 234 patients with PAH, aged 1 to 17 years, body weight greater than or equal to 8 kg, were randomized, on the basis of body weight, to three dose levels of Sildenafil, or placebo, for 16 weeks of treatment. Most patients had mild to moderate symptoms at baseline: WHO Functional Class I (32%), II (51%), III (15%), or IV (0.4%). One-third of patients had primary PAH; two-thirds had secondary PAH (systemic-to-pulmonary shunt in 37%; surgical repair in 30%). Sixty-two percent of patients were female. Drug or placebo was administered three times a day.

The primary objective of the study was to assess the effect of Sildenafil on exercise capacity as measured by cardiopulmonary exercise testing in pediatric patients developmentally able to perform the test (n=115). Administration of Sildenafil did not result in a statistically significant improvement in exercise capacity in those patients. No patients died during the 16-week controlled study.

After completing the 16-week controlled study, a patient originally randomized to Sildenafil remained on his/her dose of Sildenafil or, if originally randomized to placebo, was randomized to low-, medium-, or high-dose Sildenafil. After all patients completed 16 weeks of follow-up in the controlled study, the blind was broken and doses were adjusted as clinically indicated. Patients treated with sildenafil were followed for a median of 4.6 years (range 2 days to 8.6 years). Mortality during the long-term study, by originally assigned dose, is shown in Figure 6:

Figure 6: Kaplan-Meier Plot of Mortality by Sildenafil Dose

fig6
(click image for full-size original)

During the study, there were 42 reported deaths, with 37 of these deaths reported prior to a decision to titrate subjects to a lower dosage because of a finding of increased mortality with increasing Sildenafil doses. For the survival analysis which included 37 deaths, the hazard ratio for high dose compared to low dose was 3.9, p=0.007. Causes of death were typical of patients with PAH. Use of Sildenafil, particularly chronic use, is not recommended in children.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of Sildenafil did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].

8.6 Patients with Hepatic Impairment

No dose adjustment for mild to moderate impairment is required. Severe impairment has not been studied [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].

8.7 Patients with Renal Impairment

No dose adjustment is required (including severe impairment CLcr < 30 mL/min) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].

All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.

This site is provided for educational and informational purposes only, in accordance with our Terms of Use, and is not intended as a substitute for the advice of a medical doctor, nurse, nurse practitioner or other qualified health professional.

Privacy Policy | Copyright © 2022. All Rights Reserved.