Prolonged erection greater than 4 hours and priapism (painful erections greater than 6 hours in duration) have been reported infrequently since market approval of sildenafil. In the event of an erection that persists longer than 4 hours, the patient should seek immediate medical assistance. If priapism is not treated immediately, penile tissue damage and permanent loss of potency could result.
Sildenafil should be used with caution in patients with anatomical deformation of the penis (such as angulation, cavernosal fibrosis or Peyronie’s disease), or in patients who have conditions which may predispose them to priapism (such as sickle cell anemia, multiple myeloma, or leukemia). However, there are no controlled clinical data on the safety or efficacy of sildenafil in patients with sickle cell or related anemias.
Physicians should advise patients to stop use of all phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors, including sildenafil, and seek medical attention in the event of a sudden loss of vision in one or both eyes. Such an event may be a sign of non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), a rare condition and a cause of decreased vision including permanent loss of vision, that has been reported rarely post-marketing in temporal association with the use of all PDE5 inhibitors. Based on published literature, the annual incidence of NAION is 2.5 to 11.8 cases per 100,000 in males aged ≥ 50. An observational case-crossover study evaluated the risk of NAION when PDE5 inhibitor use, as a class, occurred immediately before NAION onset (within 5 half-lives), compared to PDE5 inhibitor use in a prior time period. The results suggest an approximate 2-fold increase in the risk of NAION, with a risk estimate of 2.15 (95% CI 1.06, 4.34). A similar study reported a consistent result, with a risk estimate of 2.27 (95% CI 0.99, 5.20). Other risk factors for NAION, such as the presence of “crowded” optic disc, may have contributed to the occurrence of NAION in these studies. Neither the rare post-marketing reports, nor the association of PDE5 inhibitor use and NAION in the observational studies, substantiate a causal relationship between PDE5 inhibitor use and NAION [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
Physicians should consider whether their patients with underlying NAION risk factors could be adversely affected by use of PDE5 inhibitors. Individuals who have already experienced NAION are at increased risk of NAION recurrence. Therefore, PDE5 inhibitors, including sildenafil, should be used with caution in these patients and only when the anticipated benefits outweigh the risks. Individuals with “crowded” optic disc are also considered at greater risk for NAION compared to the general population, however, evidence is insufficient to support screening of prospective users of PDE5 inhibitors, including sildenafil, for this uncommon condition.
There are no controlled clinical data on the safety or efficacy of sildenafil in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (a minority of these patients have genetic disorders of retinal phosphodiesterases); if prescribed, this should be done with caution.
Physicians should advise patients to stop taking PDE5 inhibitors, including sildenafil, and seek prompt medical attention in the event of sudden decrease or loss of hearing. These events, which may be accompanied by tinnitus and dizziness, have been reported in temporal association to the intake of PDE5 inhibitors, including sildenafil. It is not possible to determine whether these events are related directly to the use of PDE5 inhibitors or to other factors [see Adverse Reactions (6.1, 6.2)].
Caution is advised when PDE5 inhibitors are co-administered with alpha-blockers. PDE5 inhibitors, including sildenafil, and alpha-adrenergic blocking agents are both vasodilators with blood pressure lowering effects. When vasodilators are used in combination, an additive effect on blood pressure may occur. In some patients, concomitant use of these two drug classes can lower blood pressure significantly [see Drug Interactions (7.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)] leading to symptomatic hypotension (e.g., dizziness, lightheadedness, fainting).
Consideration should be given to the following:
- Patients who demonstrate hemodynamic instability on alpha-blocker therapy alone are at increased risk of symptomatic hypotension with concomitant use of PDE5 inhibitors. Patients should be stable on alpha-blocker therapy prior to initiating a PDE5 inhibitor.
- In those patients who are stable on alpha-blocker therapy, PDE5 inhibitors should be initiated at the lowest dose [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
- In those patients already taking an optimized dose of a PDE5 inhibitor, alpha-blocker therapy should be initiated at the lowest dose. Stepwise increase in alpha-blocker dose may be associated with further lowering of blood pressure when taking a PDE5 inhibitor.
- Safety of combined use of PDE5 inhibitors and alpha-blockers may be affected by other variables, including intravascular volume depletion and other anti-hypertensive drugs.
Sildenafil has systemic vasodilatory properties and may further lower blood pressure in patients taking anti- hypertensive medications.
In a separate drug interaction study, when amlodipine, 5 mg or 10 mg, and sildenafil, 100 mg were orally administered concomitantly to hypertensive patients mean additional blood pressure reduction of 8 mmHg systolic and 7 mmHg diastolic were noted [see Drug Interactions (7.3) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].
The concomitant administration of the protease inhibitor ritonavir substantially increases serum concentrations of sildenafil (11-fold increase in AUC). If sildenafil is prescribed to patients taking ritonavir, caution should be used. Data from subjects exposed to high systemic levels of sildenafil are limited. Decreased blood pressure, syncope, and prolonged erection were reported in some healthy volunteers exposed to high doses of sildenafil (200 mg to 800 mg). To decrease the chance of adverse reactions in patients taking ritonavir, a decrease in sildenafil dosage is recommended [see Dosage and Administration (2.4), Drug Interactions (7.4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
The safety and efficacy of combinations of sildenafil with other PDE5 Inhibitors, including REVATIO or other pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) treatments containing sildenafil, or other treatments for erectile dysfunction have not been studied. Such combinations may further lower blood pressure. Therefore, the use of such combinations is not recommended.
There have been postmarketing reports of bleeding events in patients who have taken sildenafil. A causal relationship between sildenafil and these events has not been established. In humans, sildenafil has no effect on bleeding time when taken alone or with aspirin. However, in vitro studies with human platelets indicate that sildenafil potentiates the antiaggregatory effect of sodium nitroprusside (a nitric oxide donor). In addition, the combination of heparin and sildenafil had an additive effect on bleeding time in the anesthetized rabbit, but this interaction has not been studied in humans.
The safety of sildenafil is unknown in patients with bleeding disorders and patients with active peptic ulceration.
The use of sildenafil offers no protection against sexually transmitted diseases. Counseling of patients about the protective measures necessary to guard against sexually transmitted diseases, including the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), may be considered.
The following are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling:
- Cardiovascular [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
- Prolonged Erection and Priapism [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
- Effects on the Eye [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
- Hearing Loss [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
- Hypotension when Co-administered with Alpha-blockers or Anti-hypertensives [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
- Adverse Reactions with the Concomitant Use of Ritonavir [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
- Combination with other PDE5 Inhibitors or Other Erectile Dysfunction Therapies [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
- Effects on Bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]
- Counseling Patients About Sexually Transmitted Diseases [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]
The most common adverse reactions reported in clinical trials (> 2%) are headache, flushing, dyspepsia, abnormal vision, nasal congestion, back pain, myalgia, nausea, dizziness, and rash.
All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.