No evidence of teratogenicity, embryotoxicity or fetotoxicity was observed in rats and rabbits which received oral doses up to 200 mg/kg/day during organogenesis. These doses represent, respectively, about 16 and 32 times the MRHD on a mg/m 2 basis in a 50 kg subject. In the rat pre- and postnatal development study, the no observed adverse effect dose was 30 mg/kg/day given for 36 days, about 2 times the MRHD on a mg/m 2 basis in a 50 kg subject.
Sildenafil Citrate is not indicated for use in females.
Limited data indicate that sildenafil and its active metabolite are present in human milk. There is no information on the effects on the breastfed child, or the effects on milk production.
Sildenafil citrate is not indicated for use in pediatric patients. Safety and effectiveness have not been established in pediatric patients.
Healthy elderly volunteers (65 years or over) had a reduced clearance of sildenafil resulting in approximately 84% and 107% higher plasma AUC values of sildenafil and its active N-desmethyl metabolite, respectively, compared to those seen in healthy young volunteers (18 to 45 years) [ see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Due to age-differences in plasma protein binding, the corresponding increase in the AUC of free (unbound) sildenafil and its active N-desmethyl metabolite were 45% and 57%, respectively [ see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of Sildenafil citrate, 18% were 65 years and older, while 2% were 75 years and older. No overall differences in safety or efficacy were observed between older (≥ 65 years of age) and younger (< 65 years of age) subjects.
However, since higher plasma levels may increase the incidence of adverse reactions, a starting dose of 25 mg should be considered in older subjects due to the higher systemic exposure [ see Dosage and Administration (2.5) ].
No dose adjustment is required for mild (CLcr=50 to 80 mL/min) and moderate (CLcr=30 to 49 mL/min) renal impairment. In volunteers with severe renal impairment (Clcr<30 mL/min), sildenafil clearance was reduced, resulting in higher plasma exposure of sildenafil (~2 fold), approximately doubling of C max and AUC. A starting dose of 25 mg should be considered in patients with severe renal impairment [ see Dosage and Administration (2.5) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
In volunteers with hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A and B), sildenafil clearance was reduced, resulting in higher plasma exposure of sildenafil (47% for C max and 85% for AUC). The pharmacokinetics of sildenafil in patients with severely impaired hepatic function (Child-Pugh Class C) have not been studied. A starting dose of 25 mg should be considered in patients with any degree of hepatic impairment [ see Dosage and Administration (2.5) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
In studies with healthy volunteers of single doses up to 800 mg, adverse events were similar to those seen at lower doses but rates and severities were increased.
In cases of overdose, standard supportive measures should be adopted as required. Renal dialysis is not expected to accelerate clearance as sildenafil is highly bound to plasma proteins and it is not eliminated in the urine.
Sildenafil tablets USP, an oral therapy for erectile dysfunction, is the citrate salt of sildenafil, a selective inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5).
Sildenafil citrate, USP is designated chemically as 1-[[3-(6,7-dihydro-1-methyl-7-oxo-3-propyl-1 H -pyrazolo [4,3- d ] pyrimidin-5-yl)-4- ethoxyphenyl] sulfonyl]-4-methylpiperazine citrate and has the following structural formula:
Sildenafil citrate, USP is a white to off-white crystalline powder with a solubility of 3.5 mg/mL in water and a molecular weight of 666.7.
Sildenafil Citrate USP is formulated as blue, round, biconvex, film-coated tablets containing sildenafil citrate equivalent to 25 mg, 50 mg or 100 mg of sildenafil for oral administration. In addition to the active ingredient, sildenafil citrate, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: croscarmellose sodium, dibasic calcium phosphate anhydrous, hypromellose, lake of indigo carmine, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium stearyl fumarate, titanium dioxide and triacetin.
The physiologic mechanism of erection of the penis involves release of nitric oxide (NO) in the corpus cavernosum during sexual stimulation. NO then activates the enzyme guanylate cyclase, which results in increased levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), producing smooth muscle relaxation in the corpus cavernosum and allowing inflow of blood.
Sildenafil enhances the effect of NO by inhibiting phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), which is responsible for degradation of cGMP in the corpus cavernosum. Sildenafil has no direct relaxant effect on isolated human corpus cavernosum. When sexual stimulation causes local release of NO, inhibition of PDE5 by sildenafil causes increased levels of cGMP in the corpus cavernosum, resulting in smooth muscle relaxation and inflow of blood to the corpus cavernosum. Sildenafil at recommended doses has no effect in the absence of sexual stimulation.
Studies in vitro have shown that sildenafil is selective for PDE5. Its effect is more potent on PDE5 than on other known phosphodiesterases (10-fold for PDE6, >80-fold for PDE1, >700-fold for PDE2, PDE3, PDE4, PDE7, PDE8, PDE9, PDE10, and PDE11). Sildenafil is approximately 4,000-fold more selective for PDE5 compared to PDE3. PDE3 is involved in control of cardiac contractility. Sildenafil is only about 10-fold as potent for PDE5 compared to PDE6, an enzyme found in the retina which is involved in the phototransduction pathway of the retina. This lower selectivity is thought to be the basis for abnormalities related to color vision [ see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2) ].
In addition to human corpus cavernosum smooth muscle, PDE5 is also found in other tissues including platelets, vascular and visceral smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle, brain, heart, liver, kidney, lung, pancreas, prostate, bladder, testis, and seminal vesicle. The inhibition of PDE5 in some of these tissues by sildenafil may be the basis for the enhanced platelet antiaggregatory activity of NO observed in vitro , an inhibition of platelet thrombus formation in vivo and peripheral arterial-venous dilatation in vivo.
Effects of Sildenafil citrate on Erectile Response: In eight double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover studies of patients with either organic or psychogenic erectile dysfunction, sexual stimulation resulted in improved erections, as assessed by an objective measurement of hardness and duration of erections (RigiScan ®), after sildenafil citrate administration compared with placebo. Most studies assessed the efficacy of sildenafil citrate approximately 60 minutes post dose. The erectile response, as assessed by RigiScan ® , generally increased with increasing sildenafil dose and plasma concentration. The time course of effect was examined in one study, showing an effect for up to 4 hours but the response was diminished compared to 2 hours.
Effects of Sildenafil citrate on Blood Pressure: Single oral doses of sildenafil (100 mg) administered to healthy volunteers produced decreases in sitting blood pressure (mean maximum decrease in systolic/diastolic blood pressure of 8.3/5.3 mmHg). The decrease in sitting blood pressure was most notable approximately 1 to 2 hours after dosing, and was not different than placebo at 8 hours. Similar effects on blood pressure were noted with 25 mg, 50 mg and 100 mg of Sildenafil citrate, therefore the effects are not related to dose or plasma levels within this dosage range. Larger effects were recorded among patients receiving concomitant nitrates [ see Contraindications (4.1) ].
Figure 1: Mean Change from Baseline in Sitting Systolic Blood Pressure, Healthy Volunteers.
Effects of Sildenafil citrate on Blood Pressure When Nitroglycerin is Subsequently Administered: Based on the pharmacokinetic profile of a single 100 mg oral dose given to healthy normal volunteers, the plasma levels of sildenafil at 24 hours post dose are approximately 2 ng/mL (compared to peak plasma levels of approximately 440 ng/mL). In the following patients: age >65 years, hepatic impairment (e.g., cirrhosis), severe renal impairment (e.g., creatinine clearance <30 mL/min), and concomitant use of erythromycin or strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, plasma levels of sildenafil at 24 hours post dose have been found to be 3 to 8 times higher than those seen in healthy volunteers. Although plasma levels of sildenafil at 24 hours post dose are much lower than at peak concentration, it is unknown whether nitrates can be safely co-administered at this time point [ see Contraindications (4.1) ].
Effects of Sildenafil citrate on Blood Pressure When Co-administered with Alpha-Blockers: Three double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, two-way crossover studies were conducted to assess the interaction of Sildenafil citrate with doxazosin, an alpha-adrenergic blocking agent.
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