SILDENAFIL CITRATE- sildenafil citrate tablet, film coated
ATLANTIC BIOLOGICALS CORP.
1. INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Sildenafil tablets are indicated for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (WHO Group I) in adults to improve exercise ability and delay clinical worsening. The delay in clinical worsening was demonstrated when Sildenafil tablets were added to background epoprostenol therapy [see Clinical Studies (14)].
Studies establishing effectiveness were short-term (12 to 16 weeks), and included predominately patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Class II-III symptoms and idiopathic etiology (71%) or associated with connective tissue disease (CTD) (25%).
Limitation of Use: Adding sildenafil to bosentan therapy does not result in any beneficial effect on exercise capacity [see Clinical Studies (14)].
2. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
2.1 Sildenafil Tablets
The recommended dose of sildenafil tablets is 20 mg three times a day. Administer sildenafil tablet doses 4–6 hours apart. In the clinical trial no greater efficacy was achieved with the use of higher doses. Treatment with doses higher than 20 mg three times a day is not recommended.
3. DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Sildenafil tablets, USP as white round, biconvex film coated tablets, debossed with R on one side and 20 on the other, containing sildenafil citrate equivalent to 20 mg of sildenafil.
Sildenafil tablets are contraindicated in patients with:
- Concomitant use of organic nitrates in any form, either regularly or intermittently, because of the greater risk of hypotension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
- Concomitant use of riociguat, a guanylate cyclase stimulator. PDE-5 inhibitors, including sildenafil, may potentiate the hypotensive effects of riociguat.
- Known hypersensitivity to sildenafil or any component of the tablet. Hypersensitivity, including anaphylactic reaction, anaphylactic shock and anaphylactoid reaction, has been reported in association with the use of sildenafil.
5. WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Mortality with Pediatric Use
In a long-term trial in pediatric patients with PAH, an increase in mortality with increasing sildenafil tablets dose was observed. Deaths were first observed after about 1 year and causes of death were typical of patients with PAH. Use of sildenafil tablets, particularly chronic use, is not recommended in children. [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].
Sildenafil tablets has vasodilatory properties, resulting in mild and transient decreases in blood pressure. Before prescribing sildenafil tablets, carefully consider whether patients with certain underlying conditions could be adversely affected by such vasodilatory effects (e.g., patients on antihypertensive therapy or with resting hypotension [BP less than 90/50], fluid depletion, severe left ventricular outflow obstruction, or autonomic dysfunction). Monitor blood pressure when co-administering blood pressure lowering drugs with sildenafil tablets.
5.3 Worsening Pulmonary Vascular Occlusive Disease
Pulmonary vasodilators may significantly worsen the cardiovascular status of patients with pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD). Since there are no clinical data on administration of sildenafil tablets to patients with veno-occlusive disease, administration of sildenafil tablets to such patients is not recommended. Should signs of pulmonary edema occur when sildenafil tablets are administered, consider the possibility of associated PVOD.
The incidence of epistaxis was 13% in patients taking sildenafil tablets with PAH secondary to CTD. This effect was not seen in idiopathic PAH (sildenafil tablets 3%, placebo 2%) patients. The incidence of epistaxis was also higher in sildenafil tablets-treated patients with a concomitant oral vitamin K antagonist (9% versus 2% in those not treated with concomitant vitamin K antagonist).
The safety of sildenafil tablets is unknown in patients with bleeding disorders or active peptic ulceration.
5.5 Visual Loss
When used to treat erectile dysfunction, non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), a cause of decreased vision including permanent loss of vision, has been reported postmarketing in temporal association with the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors, including sildenafil. Most, but not all, of these patients had underlying anatomic or vascular risk factors for developing NAION, including but not necessarily limited to: low cup to disc ratio (“crowded disc”), age over 50, diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia and smoking. Based on published literature, the annual incidence of NAION is 2.5–11.8 cases per 100,000 males aged ≥ 50 per year in the general population.
An observational case-crossover study evaluated the risk of NAION when PDE-5 inhibitor use, as a class, occurred immediately before NAION onset (within 5 half-lives), compared to PDE-5 inhibitor use in a prior time period. The results suggest an approximate 2-fold increase in the risk of NAION, with a risk estimate of 2.15 (95% CI 1.06, 4.34). A similar study reported a consistent result, with a risk estimate of 2.27 (95% CI 0.99, 5.20). Other risk factors for NAION, such as the presence of “crowded” optic disc, may have contributed to the occurrence of NAION in these studies.
Neither the rare postmarketing reports, nor the association of PDE-5 inhibitor use and NAION in the observational studies, substantiate a causal relationship between PDE-5 inhibitor use and NAION [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
Advise patients to seek immediate medical attention in the event of a sudden loss of vision in one or both eyes while taking PDE-5 inhibitors, including sildenafil tablets. Physicians should also discuss the increased risk of NAION with patients who have already experienced NAION in one eye, including whether such individuals could be adversely affected by use of vasodilators, such as PDE-5 inhibitors.
There are no controlled clinical data on the safety or efficacy of sildenafil tablets in patients with retinitis pigmentosa, a minority whom have genetic disorders of retinal phosphodiesterases. Prescribe sildenafil tablets with caution in these patients.
5.6 Hearing Loss
Cases of sudden decrease or loss of hearing, which may be accompanied by tinnitus and dizziness, have been reported in temporal association with the use of PDE-5 inhibitors, including sildenafil tablets. In some of the cases, medical conditions and other factors were reported that may have played a role. In many cases, medical follow-up information was limited. It is not possible to determine whether these reported events are related directly to the use of Sildenafil tablets, to the patient’s underlying risk factors for hearing loss, a combination of these factors, or to other factors.
Advise patients to seek prompt medical attention in the event of sudden decrease or loss of hearing while taking PDE-5 inhibitors, including sildenafil tablets.
5.7 Combination with other PDE-5 inhibitors
Sildenafil is also marketed as VIAGRA ® ;. The safety and efficacy of combinations of sildenafil tablets with VIAGRA or other PDE-5 inhibitors have not been studied. Inform patients taking sildenafil tablets not to take VIAGRA or other PDE-5 inhibitors.
Use sildenafil tablets with caution in patients with anatomical deformation of the penis (e.g., angulation, cavernosal fibrosis, or Peyronie’s disease) or in patients who have conditions, which may predispose them to priapism (e.g., sickle cell anemia, multiple myeloma, or leukemia). In the event of an erection that persists longer than 4 hours, the patient should seek immediate medical assistance. If priapism (painful erection greater than 6 hours in duration) is not treated immediately, penile tissue damage and permanent loss of potency could result.
5.9 Vaso-occlusive Crisis in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension Secondary to Sickle Cell Anemia
In a small, prematurely terminated study of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to sickle cell disease, vaso-occlusive crises requiring hospitalization were more commonly reported by patients who received sildenafil tablets than by those randomized to placebo. The effectiveness and safety of sildenafil tablets in the treatment of PAH secondary to sickle cell anemia has not been established.
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