Sirolimus (Page 10 of 12)

14.3 High-Immunologic Risk Renal Transplant Patients

Sirolimus was studied in a one-year, clinical trial in high risk patients (Study 4) who were defined as Black transplant recipients and/or repeat renal transplant recipients who lost a previous allograft for immunologic reasons and/or patients with high panel-reactive antibodies (PRA; peak PRA level >80%). Patients received concentration-controlled sirolimus and cyclosporine (MODIFIED), and corticosteroids per local practice. The sirolimus dose was adjusted to achieve target whole blood trough sirolimus concentrations of 10 to 15 ng/mL (chromatographic method) throughout the 12-month study period. The cyclosporine dose was adjusted to achieve target whole blood trough concentrations of 200 to 300 ng/mL through week 2, 150 to 200 ng/mL from week 2 to week 26, and 100 to 150 ng/mL from week 26 to week 52 [ see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] for the observed trough concentrations ranges. Antibody induction was allowed per protocol as prospectively defined at each transplant center, and was used in 88.4% of patients. The study was conducted at 35 centers in the United States. A total of 224 patients received a transplant and at least one dose of sirolimus and cyclosporine and was comprised of 77.2% Black patients, 24.1% repeat renal transplant recipients, and 13.5% patients with high PRA. Efficacy was assessed with the following endpoints, measured at 12 months: efficacy failure (defined as the first occurrence of biopsy-confirmed acute rejection, graft loss, or death), first occurrence of graft loss or death, and renal function as measured by the calculated GFR using the Nankivell formula. The table below summarizes the result of these endpoints.

TABLE 16: EFFICACY FAILURE, GRAFT LOSS OR DEATH AND CALCULATED GLOMERULAR FUNCTION RATES (mL/min) BY NANKIVELL EQUATION AT 12 MONTHS POST-TRANSPLANT: STUDY 4

Parameter

Sirolimus

With Cyclosporine, Corticosteroids

(n =224)

Efficacy Failure (%)

Graft Loss or Death (%)

Renal Function (mean ± SEM) a,b

23.2

9.8

52.6 ± 1.6

(n = 222)

a Calculated glomerular filtration rate by Nankivell equation.

b Patients who had graft loss were included in this analysis with GFR set to 0.

Patient survival at 12 months was 94.6%. The incidence of biopsy-confirmed acute rejection was 17.4% and the majority of the episodes of acute rejection were mild in severity.

14.4 Conversion from Calcineurin Inhibitors to Sirolimus in Maintenance Renal Transplant Patients

Conversion from calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) to sirolimus was assessed in maintenance renal transplant patients 6 months to 10 years post-transplant (Study 5). This study was a randomized, multicenter, controlled trial conducted at 111 centers globally, including US and Europe, and was intended to show that renal function was improved by conversion from CNI to sirolimus. Eight hundred thirty (830) patients were enrolled and stratified by baseline calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR, 20 mL/min to 40 mL/min versus greater than 40 mL/min). In this trial there was no benefit associated with conversion with regard to improvement in renal function and a greater incidence of proteinuria in the sirolimus conversion arm. In addition, enrollment of patients with baseline calculated GFR less than 40 mL/min was discontinued due to a higher rate of serious adverse events, including pneumonia, acute rejection, graft loss and death [ see Adverse Reactions (6.4) ].

This study compared renal transplant patients (6 to 120 months after transplantation) who were converted from calcineurin inhibitors to sirolimus, with patients who continued to receive calcineurin inhibitors. Concomitant immunosuppressive medications included mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), azathioprine (AZA), and corticosteroids. Sirolimus was initiated with a single loading dose of 12 mg to 20 mg, after which dosing was adjusted to achieve a target sirolimus whole blood trough concentration of 8 to 20 ng/mL (chromatographic method). The efficacy endpoint was calculated GFR at 12 months post-randomization. Additional endpoints included biopsy-confirmed acute rejection, graft loss, and death. Findings in the patient stratum with baseline calculated GFR greater than 40 mL/min (sirolimus conversion, n = 497; CNI continuation, n = 246) are summarized below. There was no clinically or statistically significant improvement in Nankivell GFR compared to baseline.

TABLE 17: RENAL FUNCTION IN STABLE RENAL TRANSPLANT PATIENTS IN PATIENTS WITH BASELINE GFR > 40 mL/min THE SIROLIMUS CONVERSION STUDY (STUDY 5)

Parameter

Sirolimus conversation

N = 496

CNI continuation

N= 245

Difference (95% CI)

GFR mL/min (Nankivell) at 1 year

59.0

57.7

1.3 (-1.1, 3.7)

GFR mL/min (Nankivell) at 2 year

53.7

52.1

1.6 (-1.4, 4.6)

The rates of acute rejection, graft loss, and death were similar at 1 and 2 years. Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred more frequentlyduring the first 6 months after sirolimus conversion. The rates of pneumonia were significantly higher for the sirolimus conversion group.

While the mean and median values for urinary protein to creatinine ratio were similar between treatment groups at baseline, significantly higher mean and median levels of urinary protein excretion were seen in the sirolimus conversion arm at 1 year and at 2 years, as shown in the table below [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.9) ]. In addition, when compared to patients who continued to receive calcineurin inhibitors, a higher percentage of patients had urinary protein to creatinine ratios >1 at 1 and 2 years after sirolimus conversion. This difference was seen in both patients who had a urinary protein to creatinine ratio ≤1 and those who had a protein to creatinine ratio >1 at baseline. More patients in the sirolimus conversion group developed nephrotic range proteinuria, as defined by a urinary protein to creatinine ratio >3.5 (46/482 [9.5%] versus 9/239 [3.8%]), even when the patients with baseline nephrotic range proteinuria were excluded. The rate of nephrotic range proteinuria was significantly higher in the sirolimus conversion group compared to the calcineurin inhibitor continuation group with baseline urinary protein to creatinine ratio >1 (13/29 versus 1/14), excluding patients with baseline nephrotic range proteinuria.The rates of acute rejection, graft loss, and death were similar at 1 and 2 years. Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred more frequently during the first 6 months after sirolimus conversion. The rates of pneumonia were significantly higher for the sirolimus conversion group.

TABLE 18: MEAN AND MEDIAN VALUES FOR URINARY PROTEIN TO CREATININE RATIO (mg/mg) BETWEEN TREATMENT GROUPS AT BASELINE, 1 AND 2 YEARS IN THE STRATUM WITH BASELINE CALCULATED GFR > 40 mL/min

Study period

Sirolimus Conversion

CNI Continuation

N

Mean ± SD

Median

N

Mean ± SD

Median

p-value

Baseline

410

0.35 ± 0.76

0.13

207

0.28 ± 0.61

0.11

0.381

1 year

423

0.88 ± 1.61

0.31

203

0.37 ± 0.88

0.14

<0.001

2 years

373

0.86 ± 1.48

0.32

190

0.47 ± 0.98

0.13

<0.001

The above information should be taken into account when considering conversion from calcineurin inhibitors to sirolimus in stable renal transplant patients due to the lack of evidence showing that renal function improves following conversion, and the finding of a greater increment in urinary protein excretion, and an increased incidence of treatment-emergent nephrotic range proteinuria following conversion to sirolimus. This was particularly true among patients with existing abnormal urinary protein excretion prior to conversion.

In an open-label, randomized, comparative, multicenter study where kidney transplant patients were either converted from tacrolimus to sirolimus 3 to 5 months post-transplant (sirolimus group) or remained on tacrolimus, there was no significant difference in renal function at 2 years post-transplant. Overall, 44/131 (33.6%) discontinued treatment in the sirolimus group versus 12/123 (9.8%) in the tacrolimus group. More patients reported adverse events 130/131 (99.2%) versus 112/123 (91.1%) and more patients reported discontinuations from the treatment due to adverse events 28/131 (21.4%) versus 4/123 (3.3%) in the sirolimus group compared to the tacrolimus group.

The incidence of biopsy-confirmed acute rejection was higher for patients in the sirolimus group 11/131 (8.4%) compared to the tacrolimus group 2/123 (1.6%) through 2 years post-transplant. The rate of new-onset diabetes mellitus post-randomization, defined as 30 days or longer of continuous or at least 25 days non-stop (without gap) use of any diabetic treatment after randomization, a fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or a non-fasting glucose ≥200 mg/dL, was higher in the sirolimus group 15/82 (18.3%) compared to the tacrolimus group 4/72 (5.6%). A greater incidence of proteinuria, was seen in the sirolimus group 19/131 (14.5%) versus 2/123 (1.6%) in the tacrolimus group.

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