SODIUM BICARBONATE — sodium bicarbonate injection
International Medication Systems, Limited
FOR THE CORRECTION OF METABOLIC ACIDOSIS AND OTHER CONDITIONS REQUIRING SYSTEMIC ALKALINIZATION
Sodium Bicarbonate Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, hypertonic solution of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ) in water for injection for administration by the intravenous route as an electrolyte replenisher and systemic alkalizer.
Solution is offered in 8.4% concentration. See table in HOW SUPPLIED section for contents and characteristics.
The solution has an approximate pH of 8.0 (7.5 to 8.5). Carbon dioxide may have been added to adjust the pH of the solution to approximately 8.0.
The solution contains no bacteriostat, antimicrobial agent or added buffer and is intended only for use as a single-dose injection. When smaller doses are required, the unused portion should be discarded with the entire unit.
Sodium bicarbonate, 84 mg is equal to one milliequivalent each of Na+ and HCO3¯ . Sodium Bicarbonate, USP is chemically designated NaHCO3 , a white crystalline powder soluble in water. Water for Injection, USP is chemically designated H2 O.
Intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy increases plasma bicarbonate, buffers excess hydrogen ion concentration, raises blood pH and reverses the clinical manifestations of acidosis.
Sodium bicarbonate in water dissociates to provide sodium (Na+) and bicarbonate (HCO3¯ ) ions. Sodium (Na+) is the principal cation of the extracellular fluid and plays a large part in the therapy of fluid and electrolyte disturbances. Bicarbonate (HCO3¯ ) is a normal constituent of body fluids and the normal plasma level ranges from 24 to 31 mEq/liter. Plasma concentration is regulated by the kidney through acidification of the urine when there is a deficit or by alkalinization of the urine when there is an excess. Bicarbonate anion is considered “labile” since at a proper concentration of hydrogen ion (H+) it may be converted to carbonic acid (H2 CO3 ) and thence to its volatile form, carbon dioxide (CO2 ) excreted by the lung. Normally a ratio of 1:20 (carbonic acid; bicarbonate) is present in the extracellular fluid. In a healthy adult with normal kidney function, practically all the glomerular filtered bicarbonate ion is reabsorbed; less than 1% is excreted in the urine.
Sodium Bicarbonate Injection, USP is indicated in the treatment of metabolic acidosis which may occur in severe renal disease, uncontrolled diabetes, circulatory insufficiency due to shock or severe dehydration, extracorporeal circulation of blood, cardiac arrest and severe primary lactic acidosis. Sodium bicarbonate is further indicated in the treatment of certain drug intoxications, including barbiturates (where dissociation of the barbiturate-protein complex is desired), in poisoning by salicylates or methyl alcohol and in hemolytic reactions requiring alkalinization of the urine to diminish nephrotoxicity of hemoglobin and its breakdown products. Sodium bicarbonate also is indicated in severe diarrhea which is often accompanied by a significant loss of bicarbonate.
Treatment of metabolic acidosis should, if possible, be superimposed on measures designed to control the basic cause of the acidosis – e.g., insulin in uncomplicated diabetes, blood volume restoration in shock. But since an appreciable time interval may elapse before all of the ancillary effects are brought about, bicarbonate therapy is indicated to minimize risks inherent to the acidosis itself.
Vigorous bicarbonate therapy is required in any form of metabolic acidosis where a rapid increase in plasma total CO2 content is crucial – e.g., cardiac arrest, circulatory insufficiency due to shock or severe dehydration, and in severe primary lactic acidosis or severe diabetic acidosis.
Sodium Bicarbonate Injection, USP is contraindicated in patients who are losing chloride by vomiting or from continuous gastrointestinal suction, and in patients receiving diuretics known to produce a hypochloremic alkalosis.
Solutions containing sodium ions should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with congestive heart failure, severe renal insufficiency and in clinical states in which there exists edema with sodium retention.
In patients with diminished renal function, administration of solutions containing sodium ions may result in sodium retention.
The intravenous administration of these solutions can cause fluid and/or solute overloading resulting in dilution of serum electrolyte concentrations, overhydration, congested states or pulmonary edema.
Extravascular infiltration should be avoided, see ADVERSE REACTIONS.
Do not use unless solution is clear and the container or seal is intact. Discard unused portion.
The potentially large loads of sodium given with bicarbonate require that caution be exercised in the use of sodium bicarbonate in patients with congestive heart failure or other edematous or sodium-retaining states, as well as in patients with oliguria or anuria. See table in HOW SUPPLIED section for amounts of sodium present in solutions.
Caution must be exercised in the administration of parenteral fluids, especially those containing sodium ions, to patients receiving corticosteroids or corticotropin.
Potassium depletion may predispose to metabolic alkalosis and coexistent hypocalcemia may be associated with carpopedal spasm as the plasma pH rises. These dangers can be minimized if such electrolyte imbalances are appropriately treated prior to or concomitantly with bicarbonate infusion.
The aim of all bicarbonate therapy is to produce a substantial correction of the low total CO2 content and blood pH, but the risks of overdosage and alkalosis should be avoided. Hence, repeated fractional doses and periodic monitoring by appropriate laboratory tests are recommended to minimize the possibility of overdosage.
Additives may be incompatible; norepinephrine and dobutamine are incompatible with sodium bicarbonate solution.
The addition of sodium bicarbonate to parenteral solutions containing calcium should be avoided, except where compatibility has been previously established. Precipitation or haze may result from sodium bicarbonate/calcium admixtures. NOTE: Do not use the injection if it contains precipitate.
Additives may be incompatible. Consult with pharmacist, if available. When introducing additives, use aseptic technique, mix thoroughly and do not store.
Pregnancy Category C. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with sodium bicarbonate. It is also not known whether sodium bicarbonate can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Sodium bicarbonate should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.
Rapid injection (10 mL/min) of hypertonic Sodium Bicarbonate Injection, USP solutions into neonates and children under two years of age may produce hypernatremia, a decrease in cerebrospinal fluid pressure and possible intracranial hemorrhage. The rate of administration in such patients should therefore be limited to no more than 8 mEq/kg/day. A 4.2% solution may be preferred for such slow administration. In emergencies such as cardiac arrest, the risk of rapid infusion must be weighed against the potential for fatality due to acidosis.
Clinical studies of Sodium Bicarbonate Injection, USP did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Overly aggressive therapy with Sodium Bicarbonate Injection, USP can result in metabolic alkalosis (associated with muscular twitchings, irritability, and tetany) and hypernatremia.
Inadvertent extravasation of intravenously administered hypertonic solutions of sodium bicarbonate have been reported to cause chemical cellulitis because of their alkalinity, with tissue necrosis, ulceration or sloughing at the site of infiltration. Prompt elevation of the part, warmth and local injection of lidocaine or hyaluronidase are recommended to reduce the likelihood of tissue sloughing from extravasated I.V. solutions.
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