Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir (Page 4 of 11)

7.4 Drugs without Clinically Significant Interactions with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir

Based on drug interaction studies conducted with sofosbuvir, velpatasvir, or sofosbuvir and velpatasvir tablets (400 mg/100 mg) no clinically significant drug interactions have been observed or are expected with the following drugs [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]:

  • Sofosbuvir and velpatasvir: atazanavir/ritonavir, buprenorphine/naloxone, cyclosporine, darunavir/ritonavir, dolutegravir, elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide, emtricitabine, methadone, naltrexone, raltegravir, or rilpivirine.
  • Sofosbuvir: ethinyl estradiol/norgestimate or tacrolimus.
  • Velpatasvir: ethinyl estradiol/norgestimate, ketoconazole, or pravastatin.

See Table 4 for use of sofosbuvir and velpatasvir with certain HIV antiretroviral regimens [see Drug Interactions (7.3)].

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

If sofosbuvir and velpatasvir is administered with ribavirin, the combination regimen is contraindicated in pregnant women and in men whose female partners are pregnant. Refer to the ribavirin prescribing information for more information on ribavirin-associated risks of use during pregnancy.

No adequate human data are available to establish whether or not sofosbuvir and velpatasvir pose a risk to pregnancy outcomes. In animal reproduction studies, no evidence of adverse developmental outcomes was observed with sofosbuvir or velpatasvir at exposures greater than those in humans at the recommended human dose (RHD) [see Data]. During organogenesis in the mouse, rat, and rabbit, systemic exposures (AUC) to velpatasvir were approximately 31 (mice), 6 (rats), and 0.4 (rabbits) times the exposure in humans at the RHD, while exposures to the predominant circulating metabolite of sofosbuvir (GS-331007) were approximately 4 (rats) and 10 (rabbits) times the exposure in humans at the RHD. In rat pre/postnatal development studies, maternal systemic exposures (AUC) to velpatasvir and GS-331007 were approximately 5 times the exposures of each component in humans at the RHD.

The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2–4% and 15–20%, respectively.

Data

Sofosbuvir: Sofosbuvir was administered orally to pregnant rats (up to 500 mg/kg/day) and rabbits (up to 300 mg/kg/day) on gestation days 6 to 18 and 6 to 19, respectively, and also to rats (oral doses up to 500 mg/kg/day) on gestation day 6 to lactation/post-partum day 20. No significant effects on embryo-fetal (rats and rabbits) or pre/postnatal (rats) development were observed at the highest doses tested. The systemic exposures (AUC) of the predominant circulating metabolite of sofosbuvir (GS-331007) during gestation were approximately 4 (rats) and 10 (rabbits) times the exposure in humans at the RHD.

Velpatasvir: Velpatasvir was administered orally to pregnant mice (up to 1000 mg/kg/day), rats (up to 200 mg/kg/day), and rabbits (up to 300 mg/kg/day) on gestation days 6 to 15, 6 to 17, and 7 to 20, respectively, and also to rats (oral doses up to 200 mg/kg) on gestation day 6 to lactation/post-partum day 20. No significant effects on embryo-fetal (mice, rats, and rabbits) or pre/postnatal (rats) development were observed at the highest doses tested. The systemic exposures (AUC) of velpatasvir during gestation were approximately 31 (mice), 6 (rats), and 0.4 (rabbits) times the exposure in humans at the RHD.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

It is not known whether sofosbuvir, velpatasvir, and their metabolites are present in human breast milk, affect human milk production, or have effects on the breastfed infant. The predominant circulating metabolite of sofosbuvir (GS-331007) was the primary component observed in the milk of lactating rats administered sofosbuvir, without effect on nursing pups. When administered to lactating rats, velpatasvir was detected in the milk of lactating rats and in the plasma of nursing pups without effects on the nursing pups [see Data].

The development and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for sofosbuvir and velpatasvir and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from sofosbuvir and velpatasvir or from the underlying maternal condition.

If sofosbuvir and velpatasvir is administered with ribavirin, the nursing mother’s information for ribavirin also applies to this combination regimen. Refer to the ribavirin prescribing information for more information on use during lactation.

Data

Sofosbuvir: No effects of sofosbuvir on growth and postnatal development were observed in nursing pups at the highest dose tested in rats. Maternal systemic exposure (AUC) to the predominant circulating metabolite of sofosbuvir (GS-331007) was approximately 5 times the exposure in humans at the RHD, with exposure of approximately 2% that of maternal exposure observed in nursing pups on lactation day 10. In a lactation study, sofosbuvir metabolites (primarily GS-331007) were excreted into the milk of lactating rats following administration of a single oral dose of sofosbuvir (20 mg/kg) on lactation day 2, with milk concentrations of approximately 10% that of maternal plasma concentrations observed 1-hour post-dose.

Velpatasvir: No effects of velpatasvir on growth and postnatal development were observed in nursing pups at the highest dose tested in rats. Maternal systemic exposure (AUC) to velpatasvir was approximately 5 times the exposure in humans at the RHD. Velpatasvir was present in the milk (approximately 173% that of maternal plasma concentrations) of lactating rats following a single oral dose of velpatasvir (30 mg/kg), and systemic exposure (AUC) in nursing pups was approximately 4% that of maternal exposure on lactation day 10.

8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential

If sofosbuvir and velpatasvir is administered with ribavirin, the information for ribavirin with regard to pregnancy testing, contraception, and infertility also applies to this combination regimen. Refer to ribavirin prescribing information for additional information.

8.4 Pediatric Use

The pharmacokinetics, safety, and effectiveness of sofosbuvir and velpatasvir for treatment of HCV genotype 1, 2, 3, 4, or 6 infection in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced pediatric patients 3 years of age and older without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis have been established in an open-label, multicenter clinical trial (Study 1143, N=216; 190 treatment-naïve, 26 treatment-experienced). No clinically meaningful differences in pharmacokinetics were observed in comparison to those observed in adults.

The safety and effectiveness in pediatric subjects were comparable to those observed in adults. However, among the 41 pediatric subjects less than 6 years of age, vomiting and product use issue (spitting up the drug) were reported more frequently (15% and 10%, respectively; all Grade 1 or 2) compared to subjects 6 years of age and older. Five subjects (12%) discontinued treatment after vomiting or spitting up the drug [see Dosage and Administration (2.4, 2.5), Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), and Clinical Studies (14.8)].

The safety and effectiveness of sofosbuvir and velpatasvir for treatment of HCV genotype 5 in pediatric patients 3 years of age and older without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis are supported by sofosbuvir, GS-331007, and velpatasvir exposures in adults and pediatric patients [see Dosage and Administration (2.2 and 2.4), Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), and Clinical Studies (14.8)]. Similar rationale is used to support dosing recommendations for pediatric patients with HCV genotype 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 infection who have decompensated cirrhosis (Child-Pugh B or C).

In patients with severe renal impairment, including those requiring dialysis, exposures of GS-331007, the inactive metabolite of sofosbuvir, are increased [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. No data are available regarding the safety of sofosbuvir and velpatasvir in pediatric patients with renal impairment [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].

The safety and effectiveness of sofosbuvir and velpatasvir have not been established in pediatric patients less than 3 years of age.

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