Spiriva HandiHaler (Page 2 of 7)

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

Adverse reactions have been identified during worldwide post-approval use of SPIRIVA HANDIHALER. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. These adverse reactions are: application site irritation (glossitis, mouth ulceration, and pharyngolaryngeal pain), dizziness, dysphagia, hoarseness, intestinal obstruction including ileus paralytic, intraocular pressure increased, oral candidiasis, palpitations, pruritus, tachycardia, throat irritation, and urticaria.


7.1 Sympathomimetics, Methylxanthines, Steroids

SPIRIVA HANDIHALER has been used concomitantly with short-acting and long-acting sympathomimetic (beta-agonists) bronchodilators, methylxanthines, and oral and inhaled steroids without increases in adverse reactions.

7.2 Anticholinergics

There is potential for an additive interaction with concomitantly used anticholinergic medications. Therefore, avoid coadministration of SPIRIVA HANDIHALER with other anticholinergic-containing drugs as this may lead to an increase in anticholinergic adverse effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4, 5.5) and Adverse Reactions (6)].


8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

The limited human data with SPIRIVA HANDIHALER use during pregnancy are insufficient to inform a drug-associated risk of adverse pregnancy-related outcomes. Based on animal reproduction studies, no structural abnormalities were observed when tiotropium was administered by inhalation to pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis at doses 790 and 8 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human daily inhalation dose (MRHDID). Increased post-implantation loss was observed in rats and rabbits administered tiotropium at maternally toxic doses 430 times and 40 times the MRHDID, respectively [see Data].

The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.


Animal Data

In 2 separate embryo-fetal development studies, pregnant rats and rabbits received tiotropium during the period of organogenesis at doses up to approximately 790 and 8 times the MRHDID, respectively (on a mcg/m2 basis at inhalation doses of 1471 and 7 mcg/kg/day in rats and rabbits, respectively). No evidence of structural abnormalities was observed in rats or rabbits. However, in rats, tiotropium caused fetal resorption, litter loss, decreases in the number of live pups at birth and the mean pup weights, and a delay in pup sexual maturation at tiotropium doses of approximately 40 times the MRHDID (on a mcg/m2 basis at a maternal inhalation dose of 78 mcg/kg/day). In rabbits, tiotropium caused an increase in post-implantation loss at a tiotropium dose of approximately 430 times the MRHDID (on a mcg/m2 basis at a maternal inhalation dose of 400 mcg/kg/day). Such effects were not observed at approximately 5 and 95 times the MRHDID, respectively (on a mcg/m2 basis at inhalation doses of 9 and 88 mcg/kg/day in rats and rabbits, respectively).

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

There are no data on the presence of tiotropium in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Tiotropium is present in milk of lactating rats; however, due to species-specific differences in lactation physiology, the clinical relevance of these data are not clear [see Data]. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for SPIRIVA HANDIHALER and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from SPIRIVA HANDIHALER or from the underlying maternal condition.


The distribution of tiotropium bromide into milk was investigated after a single intravenous administration of 10 mg/kg to lactating rats. Tiotropium and/or its metabolites are present in the milk of lactating rats at concentrations above those in plasma.

8.4 Pediatric Use

SPIRIVA HANDIHALER is not indicated for use in children. The safety and effectiveness of SPIRIVA HANDIHALER in pediatric patients have not been established.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Based on available data, no adjustment of SPIRIVA HANDIHALER dosage in geriatric patients is warranted [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Of the total number of patients who received SPIRIVA HANDIHALER in the 1-year clinical trials, 426 were <65 years, 375 were 65 to 74 years, and 105 were ≥75 years of age. Within each age subgroup, there were no differences between the proportion of patients with adverse events in the SPIRIVA HANDIHALER and the comparator groups for most events. Dry mouth increased with age in the SPIRIVA HANDIHALER group (differences from placebo were 9.0%, 17.1%, and 16.2% in the aforementioned age subgroups). A higher frequency of constipation and urinary tract infections with increasing age was observed in the SPIRIVA HANDIHALER group in the placebo-controlled studies. The differences from placebo for constipation were 0%, 1.8%, and 7.8% for each of the age groups. The differences from placebo for urinary tract infections were –0.6%, 4.6%, and 4.5%. No overall differences in effectiveness were observed among these groups.

8.6 Renal Impairment

Patients with moderate to severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance of <60 mL/min) treated with SPIRIVA HANDIHALER should be monitored closely for anticholinergic side effects [see Dosage and Administration (2), Warnings and Precautions (5.6), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

8.7 Hepatic Impairment

The effects of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of tiotropium were not studied.


High doses of tiotropium may lead to anticholinergic signs and symptoms. However, there were no systemic anticholinergic adverse effects following a single inhaled dose of up to 282 mcg tiotropium in 6 healthy volunteers. In a study of 12 healthy volunteers, bilateral conjunctivitis and dry mouth were seen following repeated once-daily inhalation of 141 mcg of tiotropium.

Treatment of overdosage consists of discontinuation of SPIRIVA HANDIHALER together with institution of appropriate symptomatic and/or supportive therapy.

Accidental Ingestion

Acute intoxication by inadvertent oral ingestion of SPIRIVA capsules is unlikely since it is not well-absorbed systemically.

A case of overdose has been reported from postmarketing experience. A female patient was reported to have inhaled 30 capsules over a 2.5 day period, and developed altered mental status, tremors, abdominal pain, and severe constipation. The patient was hospitalized, SPIRIVA HANDIHALER was discontinued, and the constipation was treated with an enema. The patient recovered and was discharged on the same day.


SPIRIVA HANDIHALER consists of SPIRIVA capsules and a HANDIHALER device. Each light green, hard gelatin SPIRIVA capsule contains a dry powder consisting of 18 mcg tiotropium (equivalent to 22.5 mcg tiotropium bromide monohydrate) blended with lactose monohydrate (which may contain milk proteins).

The contents of SPIRIVA capsules are intended for oral inhalation only, and are intended for administration only with the HANDIHALER device.

The active component of SPIRIVA HANDIHALER is tiotropium. The drug substance, tiotropium bromide monohydrate, is an anticholinergic with specificity for muscarinic receptors. It is chemically described as (1α, 2β, 4β, 5α, 7β)-7-[(Hydroxydi-2-thienylacetyl)oxy]-9,9-dimethyl-3-oxa-9-azoniatricyclo[,4 ]nonane bromide monohydrate. It is a synthetic, non-chiral, quaternary ammonium compound. Tiotropium bromide is a white or yellowish white powder. It is sparingly soluble in water and soluble in methanol.

The structural formula is:

Chemical Structure
(click image for full-size original)

Tiotropium bromide (monohydrate) has a molecular mass of 490.4 and a molecular formula of C19 H22 NO4 S2 Br ∙ H2 O.

The HANDIHALER device is an inhalation device used to inhale the dry powder contained in the SPIRIVA capsule. The dry powder is delivered from the HANDIHALER device at flow rates as low as 20 L/min. Under standardized in vitro testing, the HANDIHALER device delivers a mean of 10.4 mcg tiotropium when tested at a flow rate of 39 L/min for 3.1 seconds (2 L total). In a study of 26 adult patients with COPD and severely compromised lung function [mean FEV1 1.02 L (range 0.45 to 2.24 L); 37.6% of predicted (range 16% to 65%)], the median peak inspiratory flow (PIF) through the HANDIHALER device was 30.0 L/min (range 20.4 to 45.6 L/min). The amount of drug delivered to the lungs will vary depending on patient factors such as inspiratory flow and peak inspiratory flow through the HANDIHALER device, which may vary from patient to patient, and may vary with the exposure time of the SPIRIVA capsule outside the blister pack.

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