Spiriva

SPIRIVA — tiotropium bromide monohydrate capsule
Physicians Total Care, Inc.

1  INDICATIONS AND USAGE

SPIRIVA HandiHaler (tiotropium bromide inhalation powder) is indicated for the long-term, once-daily, maintenance treatment of bronchospasm associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including chronic bronchitis and emphysema. SPIRIVA HandiHaler is indicated to reduce exacerbations in COPD patients.

2  DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

DO NOT SWALLOW SPIRIVA CAPSULES FOR USE WITH HANDIHALER DEVICE ONLY

FOR ORAL INHALATION ONLY

SPIRIVA capsules must not be swallowed as the intended effects on the lungs will not be obtained. The contents of the SPIRIVA capsules are only for oral inhalation and should only be used with the HandiHaler device [see Overdosage (10)].

The recommended dose of SPIRIVA HandiHaler is two inhalations of the powder contents of one SPIRIVA capsule, once-daily, with the HandiHaler device [see Patient Counseling Information (17.6)].

For administration of SPIRIVA HandiHaler, a SPIRIVA capsule is placed into the center chamber of the HandiHaler device. The SPIRIVA capsule is pierced by pressing and releasing the green piercing button on the side of the HandiHaler device. The tiotropium formulation is dispersed into the air stream when the patient inhales through the mouthpiece [see Patient Counseling Information (17.6)].

No dosage adjustment is required for geriatric, hepatically-impaired, or renally-impaired patients. However, patients with moderate to severe renal impairment given SPIRIVA HandiHaler should be monitored closely for anticholinergic effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6), Use in Specific Populations (8.5, 8.6, 8.7), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

3  DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

SPIRIVA HandiHaler consists of SPIRIVA capsules and a HandiHaler device. SPIRIVA capsules contain 18 mcg dry powder formulation of tiotropium in a light green, hard gelatin capsule with TI 01 printed on one side and Boehringer Ingelheim company logo on the other side. Supplied with a HandiHaler device.

4  CONTRAINDICATIONS

SPIRIVA HandiHaler is contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to ipratropium or tiotropium. In clinical trials and postmarketing experience with SPIRIVA HandiHaler, immediate hypersensitivity reactions, including angioedema (including swelling of the lips, tongue, or throat), itching, or rash have been reported.

5  WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1  Not for Acute Use

SPIRIVA HandiHaler is intended as a once-daily maintenance treatment for COPD and is not indicated for the initial treatment of acute episodes of bronchospasm (i.e., rescue therapy).

5.2  Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions

Immediate hypersensitivity reactions, including angioedema (including swelling of the lips, tongue, or throat), itching, or rash may occur after administration of SPIRIVA HandiHaler. If such a reaction occurs, therapy with SPIRIVA HandiHaler should be stopped at once and alternative treatments should be considered. Given the similar structural formula of atropine to tiotropium, patients with a history of hypersensitivity reactions to atropine should be closely monitored for similar hypersensitivity reactions to SPIRIVA HandiHaler. In addition, SPIRIVA HandiHaler should be used with caution in patients with severe hypersensitivity to milk proteins.

5.3  Paradoxical Bronchospasm

Inhaled medicines, including SPIRIVA HandiHaler, may cause paradoxical bronchospasm. If this occurs, treatment with SPIRIVA HandiHaler should be stopped and other treatments considered.

5.4  Worsening of Narrow-Angle Glaucoma

SPIRIVA HandiHaler should be used with caution in patients with narrow-angle glaucoma. Prescribers and patients should be alert for signs and symptoms of acute narrow-angle glaucoma (e.g., eye pain or discomfort, blurred vision, visual halos or colored images in association with red eyes from conjunctival congestion and corneal edema). Instruct patients to consult a physician immediately should any of these signs or symptoms develop.

5.5  Worsening of Urinary Retention

SPIRIVA HandiHaler should be used with caution in patients with urinary retention. Prescribers and patients should be alert for signs and symptoms of prostatic hyperplasia or bladder-neck obstruction (e.g., difficulty passing urine, painful urination). Instruct patients to consult a physician immediately should any of these signs or symptoms develop.

5.6  Renal Impairment

As a predominantly renally excreted drug, patients with moderate to severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance of ≤50 mL/min) treated with SPIRIVA HandiHaler should be monitored closely for anticholinergic side effects [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

6  ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following adverse reactions are described, or described in greater detail, in other sections:

  • Immediate hypersensitivity reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
  • Paradoxical bronchospasm [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
  • Worsening of narrow-angle glaucoma [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
  • Worsening of urinary retention [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]

6.1  Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

6-Month to 1-Year Trials

The data described below reflect exposure to SPIRIVA HandiHaler in 2663 patients. SPIRIVA HandiHaler was studied in two 1-year placebo-controlled trials, two 1-year active-controlled trials, and two 6-month placebo-controlled trials in patients with COPD. In these trials, 1308 patients were treated with SPIRIVA HandiHaler at the recommended dose of 18 mcg once a day. The population had an age ranging from 39 to 87 years with 65% to 85% males, 95% Caucasian, and had COPD with a mean pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ) percent predicted of 39% to 43%. Patients with narrow-angle glaucoma, or symptomatic prostatic hypertrophy or bladder outlet obstruction were excluded from these trials. An additional 6-month trial conducted in a Veteran’s Affairs setting is not included in this safety database because only serious adverse events were collected.

The most commonly reported adverse drug reaction was dry mouth. Dry mouth was usually mild and often resolved during continued treatment. Other reactions reported in individual patients and consistent with possible anticholinergic effects included constipation, tachycardia, blurred vision, glaucoma (new onset or worsening), dysuria, and urinary retention.

Four multicenter, 1-year, placebo-controlled and active-controlled trials evaluated SPIRIVA HandiHaler in patients with COPD. Table 1 shows all adverse reactions that occurred with a frequency of ≥3% in the SPIRIVA HandiHaler group in the 1-year placebo-controlled trials where the rates in the SPIRIVA HandiHaler group exceeded placebo by ≥1%. The frequency of corresponding reactions in the ipratropium-controlled trials is included for comparison.

Table 1 Adverse Reactions (% Patients) in One-Year COPD Clinical Trials

Body System (Event) Placebo-Controlled Trials Ipratropium-Controlled Trials
SPIRIVA(n = 550) Placebo(n = 371) SPIRIVA(n = 356) Ipratropium(n = 179)
Body as a Whole Chest Pain (non-specific) 7 5 5 2
Edema, Dependent 5 4 3 5
Gastrointestinal System Disorders Dry Mouth 16 3 12 6
Dyspepsia 6 5 1 1
Abdominal Pain 5 3 6 6
Constipation 4 2 1 1
Vomiting 4 2 1 2
Musculoskeletal System Myalgia 4 3 4 3
Resistance Mechanism Disorders Infection 4 3 1 3
Moniliasis 4 2 3 2
Respiratory System (Upper) Upper Respiratory Tract Infection 41 37 43 35
Sinusitis 11 9 3 2
Pharyngitis 9 7 7 3
Rhinitis 6 5 3 2
Epistaxis 4 2 1 1
Skin and Appendage Disorders Rash 4 2 2 2
Urinary System Urinary Tract Infection 7 5 4 2

Arthritis, coughing, and influenza-like symptoms occurred at a rate of ≥3% in the SPIRIVA HandiHaler treatment group, but were <1% in excess of the placebo group.

Other reactions that occurred in the SPIRIVA HandiHaler group at a frequency of 1% to 3% in the placebo-controlled trials where the rates exceeded that in the placebo group include: Body as a Whole: allergic reaction, leg pain; Central and Peripheral Nervous System: dysphonia, paresthesia; Gastrointestinal System Disorders: gastrointestinal disorder not otherwise specified (NOS), gastroesophageal reflux, stomatitis (including ulcerative stomatitis); Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia; Musculoskeletal System Disorders: skeletal pain; Cardiac Events: angina pectoris (including aggravated angina pectoris); Psychiatric Disorder: depression; Infections: herpes zoster; Respiratory System Disorder (Upper): laryngitis; Vision Disorder: cataract. In addition, among the adverse reactions observed in the clinical trials with an incidence of <1% were atrial fibrillation, supraventricular tachycardia, angioedema, and urinary retention.

In the 1-year trials, the incidence of dry mouth, constipation, and urinary tract infection increased with age [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].

Two multicenter, 6-month, controlled studies evaluated SPIRIVA HandiHaler in patients with COPD. The adverse reactions and the incidence rates were similar to those seen in the 1-year controlled trials.

4-Year Trial
The data described below reflect exposure to SPIRIVA HandiHaler in 5992 COPD patients in a 4-year placebo-controlled trial. In this trial, 2986 patients were treated with SPIRIVA HandiHaler at the recommended dose of 18 mcg once a day. The population had an age range from 40 to 88 years, was 75% male, 90% Caucasian, and had COPD with a mean pre-bronchodilator FEV1 percent predicted of 40%. Patients with narrow-angle glaucoma, or symptomatic prostatic hypertrophy or bladder outlet obstruction were excluded from these trials. When the adverse reactions were analyzed with a frequency of ≥3% in the SPIRIVA HandiHaler group where the rates in the SPIRIVA HandiHaler group exceeded placebo by ≥1%, adverse reactions included (SPIRIVA HandiHaler, placebo): pharyngitis (12.5%, 10.8%), sinusitis (6.5%, 5.3%), headache (5.7%, 4.5%), constipation (5.1%, 3.7%), dry mouth (5.1%, 2.7%), depression (4.4%, 3.3%), insomnia (4.4%, 3.0%), and arthralgia (4.2%, 3.1%).

Additional Adverse Reactions
Other adverse reactions not previously listed that were reported more frequently in COPD patients treated with SPIRIVA HandiHaler than placebo include: dehydration, skin ulcer, stomatitis, gingivitis, oropharyngeal candidiasis, dry skin, skin infection, and joint swelling.

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