6.3 Adverse Reactions from Postmarketing Experience with Other Dosage Forms of Ketorolac or Other NSAIDs
Other observed reactions (reported from postmarketing experience in patients taking ketorolac or other NSAIDs) are:
Body as a Whole: angioedema, death, hypersensitivity reactions such as anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid reaction, laryngeal edema, tongue edema, myalgia
Cardiovascular: arrhythmia, bradycardia, chest pain, flushing, hypotension, myocardial infarction, vasculitis
Dermatologic: exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, Lyell’s syndrome, bullous reactions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis
Gastrointestinal: acute pancreatitis, liver failure, ulcerative stomatitis, exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease)
Hemic and Lymphatic: agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia, postoperative wound hemorrhage (rarely requiring blood transfusion)
Metabolic and Nutritional: hyperglycemia, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia
Nervous System: aseptic meningitis, convulsions, coma, psychosis
Respiratory: bronchospasm, respiratory depression, pneumonia
Special Senses: conjunctivitis
Urogenital: flank pain with or without hematuria and/or azotemia, hemolytic uremic syndrome
Ketorolac is highly bound to human plasma protein (mean 99.2%). There is no evidence in animal or human studies that ketorolac induces or inhibits hepatic enzymes capable of metabolizing itself or other drugs.
The in vitro binding of warfarin to plasma proteins is only slightly reduced by ketorolac (99.5% control vs. 99.3%) when ketorolac plasma concentrations reach 5 to 10 mcg/mL. Ketorolac does not alter digoxin protein binding. In vitro studies indicate that, at therapeutic concentrations of salicylate (300 mcg/mL), the binding of ketorolac was reduced from approximately 99.2% to 97.5%, representing a potential twofold increase in unbound ketorolac plasma levels. Therapeutic concentrations of digoxin, warfarin, ibuprofen, naproxen, piroxicam, acetaminophen, phenytoin, and tolbutamide did not alter ketorolac protein binding.
The effects of warfarin and NSAIDs, in general, on GI bleeding are synergistic, such that the users of both drugs together have a risk of serious GI bleeding higher than the users of either drug alone.
When ketorolac is administered with aspirin, its protein binding is reduced, although the clearance of free ketorolac is not altered. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known; however, as with other NSAIDs, concomitant administration of SPRIX and aspirin is not generally recommended because of the potential of increased adverse effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.5, 5.11)].
Clinical studies, as well as postmarketing observations, have shown that ketorolac can reduce the natriuretic effect of furosemide and thiazides in some patients. This response has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. During concomitant therapy with SPRIX, observe the patient closely for signs of renal failure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4, 5.6)], as well as to assure diuretic efficacy.
Concomitant administration of oral ketorolac and probenecid resulted in decreased clearance and volume of distribution of ketorolac and significant increases in ketorolac plasma levels (total AUC increased approximately threefold from 5.4 to 17.8 mcg/h/mL), and terminal half-life increased approximately twofold from 6.6 to 15.1 hours. Therefore, concomitant use of SPRIX and probenecid is contraindicated.
NSAIDs have produced an elevation of plasma lithium levels and a reduction in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15%, and the renal clearance was decreased by approximately 20%. These effects have been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis by the NSAID. Thus, when SPRIX and lithium are administered concurrently, observe patients carefully for signs of lithium toxicity.
NSAIDs have been reported to competitively inhibit methotrexate accumulation in rabbit kidney slices. This may indicate that they could enhance the toxicity of methotrexate. Use caution when SPRIX is administered concomitantly with methotrexate.
Concomitant use of ACE inhibitors and/or angiotensin II receptor antagonists may increase the risk of renal impairment, particularly in volume-depleted patients. Reports suggest that NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors and/or angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Consider this interaction in patients taking SPRIX concomitantly with ACE inhibitors and/or angiotensin II receptor antagonists [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4, 5.6)].
Sporadic cases of seizures have been reported during concomitant use of ketorolac and antiepileptic drugs (phenytoin, carbamazepine).
Hallucinations have been reported when ketorolac was used in patients taking psychoactive drugs (fluoxetine, thiothixene, alprazolam).
When ketorolac is administered concurrently with pentoxifylline, there is an increased tendency to bleeding. Therefore, concomitant use of SPRIX and Pentoxifylline is contraindicated [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
In postmarketing experience there have been reports of a possible interaction between ketorolac and nondepolarizing muscle relaxants that resulted in apnea. The concurrent use of ketorolac with muscle relaxants has not been formally studied.
There is an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding when selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are combined with NSAIDs. Use caution when SPRIX is administered concomitantly with SSRIs.
The rate and extent of absorption of ketorolac from SPRIX administration (31.5 mg dose) were assessed in subjects with allergic rhinitis before and after the administration of a single daily dose of 200 mcg (as 2 x 50 mcg in each nostril) of fluticasone propionate nasal spray for 7 consecutive days. There was no effect on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of SPRIX that can be considered clinically significant [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.4)].
The rate and extent of absorption of ketorolac from SPRIX administration were assessed in subjects with allergic rhinitis before and 30 min after a single dose (3 sprays in each nostril) of oxymetazoline hydrochloride nasal spray. There was no effect on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of SPRIX that can be considered clinically significant [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.4)].
Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category C prior to 30 weeks gestation; Category D starting at 30 weeks gestation.
SPRIX can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Human data demonstrate that use of NSAIDs at or after 30 weeks gestation increases the risk of premature closure of the ductus arteriosus. If SPRIX is used at or after 30 weeks gestation, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to a fetus. There are no adequate, well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Prior to 30 weeks gestation, SPRIX should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Reproduction studies have been performed during organogenesis using daily oral doses of ketorolac tromethamine at 3.6 mg/kg (0.6 times the human systemic exposure at the recommended maximum IN dose of 31.5 mg qid, based on area-under-the-plasma-concentration curve [AUC]) in rabbits and at 10 mg/kg (1.7 times the human AUC) in rats. These studies did not reveal evidence of teratogenicity or other adverse developmental outcomes. However, because animal dosing was limited by maternal toxicity, these studies do not adequately assess ketorolac’s potential to cause adverse developmental outcomes in humans.
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