SULFAMETHOXAZOLE AND TRIMETHOPRIM- sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim suspension
Atlantic Biologicals Corps
Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is a synthetic antibacterial combination product containing 200 mg sulfamethoxazole and 40 mg trimethoprim per 5 mL for oral administration.
Sulfamethoxazole is -(5-methyl-3-isoxazolyl)sulfanilamide; the molecular formula is C H N O S. It is an almost white, odorless, tasteless compound with a molecular weight of 253.28 and the following structural formula is: N 1 10 11 3 3
Trimethoprim is 2,4-diamino-5-(3,4,5- trimethoxybenzyl) pyrimidine; the molecular formula is C H N O . It is a white to light yellow, odorless, bitter compound with a molecular weight of 290.3 and. It has the following structural formula is: 14 18 4 3
alcohol 0.26%, methylparaben 0.1% and sodium benzoate 0.1% (added as preservatives), carboxymethylcellulose sodium, citric acid (anhydrous), glycerin, microcrystalline cellulose, polysorbate 80, purified water, saccharin sodium, and sorbitol. The light purple, grape flavored suspension contains the following additional inactive ingredients: FD&C Red No. 40, FD&C Blue No. 1 and natural and artificial grape flavor. The pink, cherry flavored suspension contains the following additional inactive ingredients: FD&C Red No. 40, FD&C Yellow No. 6 and artificial cherry flavor. Inactive ingredients:
Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is rapidly absorbed following oral administration. Both sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim exist in the blood as unbound, protein-bound, and metabolized forms; sulfamethoxazole also exists as the conjugated form. The metabolism of sulfamethoxazole occurs predominantly by N4-acetylation, although the glucuronide conjugate has been identified. The principal metabolites of trimethoprim are the 1- and 3-oxides and the 3’- and 4’-hydroxy derivatives. The free forms of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are considered to be the therapeutically active forms. Approximately 70% of sulfamethoxazole and 44% of trimethoprim are bound to plasma proteins. The presence of 10 mg percent sulfamethoxazole in plasma decreases the protein binding of trimethoprim by an insignificant degree; trimethoprim does not influence the protein binding of sulfamethoxazole.
Peak blood levels for the individual components occur 1 to 4 hours after oral administration. The mean serum half-lives of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are 10 and 8 to 10 hours, respectively. However, patients with severely impaired renal function exhibit an increase in the half-lives of both components, requiring dosage regimen adjustment (see section). Detectable amounts of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are present in the blood 24 hours after drug administration. During administration of 800 mg sulfamethoxazole and 160 mg trimethoprim b.i.d., the mean steady-state plasma concentration of trimethoprim was 1.72 μg/mL. The steady-state mean plasma levels of free and total sulfamethoxazole were 57.4 μg/mL and 68.0 μg/mL, respectively. These steady-state levels were achieved after three days of drug administration. Excretion of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is primarily by the kidneys through both glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. Urine concentrations of both sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are considerably higher than are the concentrations in the blood. The average percentage of the dose recovered in urine from 0 to 72 hours after a single oral dose of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is 84.5% for total sulfonamide and 66.8% for free trimethoprim. Thirty percent of the total sulfonamide is excreted as free sulfamethoxazole, with the remaining as N -acetylated metabolite. When administered together as sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, neither sulfamethoxazole nor trimethoprim affects the urinary excretion pattern of the other. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION14 2
Both sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim distribute to sputum, vaginal fluid and middle ear fluid; trimethoprim also distributes to bronchial secretions, and both pass the placental barrier and are excreted in human milk.
The pharmacokinetics of sulfamethoxazole 800 mg and trimethoprim 160 mg were studied in 6 geriatric subjects (mean age: 78.6 years) and 6 young healthy subjects (mean age: 29.3 years) using a non-U.S. approved formulation. Pharmacokinetic values for sulfamethoxazole in geriatric subjects were similar to those observed in young adult subjects. The mean renal clearance of trimethoprim was significantly lowered in geriatric subjects compared with young adult subjects (19 mL/h/kg vs. 55 mL/h/kg). However, after normalizing by body weight, the apparent total body clearance of trimethoprim was an average 19% lower in geriatric subjects compared with young adult subjects. 3
Sulfamethoxazole inhibits bacterial synthesis of dihydrofolic acid by competing with para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). Trimethoprim blocks the production of tetrahydrofolic acid from dihydrofolic acid by binding to and reversibly inhibiting the required enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase. Thus, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim blocks two consecutive steps in the biosynthesis of nucleic acids and proteins essential to many bacteria.
studies have shown that bacterial resistance develops more slowly with both sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim in combination than with either sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim alone. In vitro
Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim have been shown to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms, both and in clinical infections as described in the section. in vitro INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Escherichia coli (including susceptible enterotoxigenic strains implicated in traveler’s diarrhea)
Quantitative methods are used to determine antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). These MICs provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The MICs should be determined using a standardized procedure. Standardized procedures are based on a dilution method (broth or agar) or equivalent with standardized inoculum concentrations and standardized concentrations of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim powder. The MIC values should be interpreted according to the following criteria: 4
For testing Enterobacteriaceae:
|≤ 2/38||Susceptible (S)|
|≥ 4/76||Resistant (R)|
When testing either Haemophilus influenzae or Streptococcus pneumoniae : a b
|MIC (μg/mL)||Interpretation b|
|≤ 0.5/9.5||Susceptible (S)|
|1/19 – 2/38||Intermediate (I)|
|≥ 4/76||Resistant (R)|
These interpretative standards are applicable only to broth microdilution susceptibility tests with using Test Medium (HTM). a. Haemophilus influenzae Haemophilus 4
These interpretative standards are applicable only to broth microdilution susceptibility tests using cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth with 2% to 5% lysed horse blood. b. 4
A report of “Susceptible” indicates that the pathogen is likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentrations usually achievable. A report of “Intermediate” indicates that the result should be considered equivocal, and, if the microorganism is not fully susceptible to alternative, clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category implies possible clinical applicability in body sites where the drug is physiologically concentrated or in situations where high dosage of drug can be used. This category also provides a buffer zone which prevents small uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of “Resistant” indicates that the pathogen is not likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentrations usually achievable; other therapy should be selected.
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