Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim (Page 4 of 7)
Complete blood counts should be done frequently in patients receiving sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim; if a significant reduction in the count of any formed blood element is noted, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim should be discontinued. Urinalyses with careful microscopic examination and renal function tests should be performed during therapy, particularly for those patients with impaired renal function.
Potential for Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim to Affect Other Drugs
Trimethoprim is an inhibitor of CYP2C8 as well as OCT2 transporter. Sulfamethoxazole is an inhibitor of CYP2C9. Caution is recommended when sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is co-administered with drugs that are substrates of CYP2C8 and 2C9 or OCT2.
In elderly patients concurrently receiving certain diuretics, primarily thiazides, an increased incidence of thrombocytopenia with purpura has been reported.
It has been reported that sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim may prolong the prothrombin time in patients who are receiving the anticoagulant warfarin (a CYP2C9 substrate). This interaction should be kept in mind when sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is given to patients already on anticoagulant therapy, and the coagulation time should be reassessed.
Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim may inhibit the hepatic metabolism of phenytoin (a CYP2C9 substrate). Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, given at a common clinical dosage, increased the phenytoin half-life by 39% and decreased the phenytoin metabolic clearance rate by 27%. When administering these drugs concurrently, one should be alert for possible excessive phenytoin effect.
Sulfonamides can also displace methotrexate from plasma protein binding sites and can compete with the renal transport of methotrexate, thus increasing free methotrexate concentrations.
There have been reports of marked but reversible nephrotoxicity with coadministration of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim and cyclosporine in renal transplant recipients.
Increased digoxin blood levels can occur with concomitant sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim therapy, especially in elderly patients. Serum digoxin levels should be monitored.
Increased sulfamethoxazole blood levels may occur in patients who are also receiving indomethacin.
Occasional reports suggest that patients receiving pyrimethamine as malaria prophylaxis in doses exceeding 25 mg weekly may develop megaloblastic anemia if sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is prescribed.
The efficacy of tricyclic antidepressants can decrease when coadministered with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim.
Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim potentiates the effect of oral hypoglycemics that are metabolized by CYP2C8 (e.g., pioglitazone, repaglinide, and rosiglitazone) or CYP2C9 (e.g., glipizide and glyburide) or eliminated renally via OCT2 (e.g., metformin). Additional monitoring of blood glucose may be warranted.
In the literature, a single case of toxic delirium has been reported after concomitant intake of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim and amantadine (an OCT2 substrate). Cases of interactions with other OCT2 substrates, memantine and metformin, have also been reported. In the literature, three cases of hyperkalemia in elderly patients have been reported after concomitant intake of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim and an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. 8,9
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, specifically the trimethoprim component, can interfere with a serum methotrexate assay as determined by the competitive binding protein technique (CBPA) when a bacterial dihydrofolate reductase is used as the binding protein. No interference occurs, however, if methotrexate is measured by a radioimmunoassay (RIA).
The presence of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim may also interfere with the Jaffé alkaline picrate reaction assay for creatinine, resulting in overestimations of about 10% in the range of normal values.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Sulfamethoxazole was not carcinogenic when assessed in a 26-week tumorigenic mouse (Tg-rasH2) study at doses up to 400 mg/kg/day sulfamethoxazole; equivalent to 2.4-fold the human systemic exposure (at a daily dose of 800 mg sulfamethoxazole b.i.d.).
In vitro reverse mutation bacterial tests according to the standard protocol have not been performed with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in combination. An
in vitro chromosomal aberration test in human lymphocytes with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim was negative. In
in vitro and
in vivo tests in animal species, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim did not damage chromosomes.
In vivo micronucleus assays were positive following oral administration of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. Observations of leukocytes obtained from patients treated with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim revealed no chromosomal abnormalities.
Sulfamethoxazole alone was positive in an in vitro reverse mutation bacterial assay and in in vitro micronucleus assays using cultured human lymphocytes.
Trimethoprim alone was negative in in vitro reverse mutation bacterial assays and in in vitro chromosomal aberration assays with Chinese Hamster ovary or lung cells with or without S9 activation. In in vitro Comet, micronucleus and chromosomal damage assays using cultured human lymphocytes, trimethoprim was positive. In mice following oral administration of trimethoprim, no DNA damage in Comet assays of liver, kidney, lung, spleen, or bone marrow was recorded.
Impairment of Fertility
No adverse effects on fertility or general reproductive performance were observed in rats given oral dosages as high as 350 mg/kg/day sulfamethoxazole plus 70 mg/kg/day trimethoprim, doses roughly two times the recommended human daily dose on a body surface area basis.
While there are no large, well-controlled studies on the use of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in pregnant women, Brumfitt and Pursell, 10 in a retrospective study, reported the outcome of 186 pregnancies during which the mother received either placebo or sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. The incidence of congenital abnormalities was 4.5% (3 of 66) in those who received placebo and 3.3% (4 of 120) in those receiving sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. There were no abnormalities in the 10 children whose mothers received the drug during the first trimester. In a separate survey, Brumfitt and Pursell also found no congenital abnormalities in 35 children whose mothers had received oral sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim at the time of conception or shortly thereafter.
Because sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim may interfere with folic acid metabolism, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Pregnancy Category D
While there are no large prospective, well controlled studies in pregnant women and their babies, some retrospective epidemiologic studies suggest an association between first trimester exposure to sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim with an increased risk of congenital malformations, particularly neural tube defects, cardiovascular abnormalities, urinary tract defects, oral clefts, and club foot. These studies, however, were limited by the small number of exposed cases and the lack of adjustment for multiple statistical comparisons and confounders. These studies are further limited by recall, selection, and information biases, and by limited generalizability of their findings. Lastly, outcome measures varied between studies, limiting cross-study comparisons. Alternatively, other epidemiologic studies did not detect statistically significant associations between sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim exposure and specific malformations.
Animal Data In rats, oral doses of either 533 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole or 200 mg/kg trimethoprim produced teratologic effects manifested mainly as cleft palates. These doses are approximately 5 and 6 times the recommended human total daily dose on a body surface area basis. In two studies in rats, no teratology was observed when 512 mg/kg of sulfamethoxazole was used in combination with 128 mg/kg of trimethoprim. In some rabbit studies, an overall increase in fetal loss (dead and resorbed conceptuses) was associated with doses of trimethoprim 6 times the human therapeutic dose based on body surface area.
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