Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim

SULFAMETHOXAZOLE AND TRIMETHOPRIM — sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim tablet
Aurobindo Pharma Limited

Rx only

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim tablets and other antibacterial drugs, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

DESCRIPTION

Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is a synthetic antibacterial combination product available in DS (double strength) tablets, each containing 800 mg sulfamethoxazole and 160 mg trimethoprim; in tablets, each containing 400 mg sulfamethoxazole and 80 mg trimethoprim for oral administration. Sulfamethoxazole is N 1 -(5-methyl-3-isoxazolyl) sulfanilamide; the molecular formula is C10 H11 N3 O3 S. It is a white to off-white, practically odorless, crystalline powder, tasteless compound with a molecular weight of 253.28 and the following structural formula:

Sulfamethoxazole Chemical Structure
(click image for full-size original)

Trimethoprim is 2,4-diamino-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl) pyrimidine; the molecular formula is C14 H18 N4 O3 . It is a white or cream-colored crystals or crystalline powder with a molecular weight of 290.3 and the following structural formula:

Trimethoprim Chemical Structure

Inactive ingredients: Docusate sodium, magnesium stearate, pregelatinized starch (maize), sodium benzoate, and sodium starch glycolate.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY


Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is rapidly absorbed following oral administration. Both sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim exist in the blood as unbound, protein-bound and metabolized forms; sulfamethoxazole also exists as the conjugated form. Sulfamethoxazole is metabolized in humans to at least 5 metabolites: the N4 -acetyl-, N4 -hydroxy-, 5-methylhydroxy-, N4 -acetyl-5-methylhydroxy- sulfamethoxazole metabolites, and an N-glucuronide conjugate. The formulation of N4 -hydroxy metabolite is mediated via CYP2C9.
Trimethoprim is metabolized in vitro to 11 different metabolites, of which, five are glutathione adducts and six are oxidative metabolites, including the major metabolites, 1- and 3-oxides and the 3- and 4-hydroxy derivatives.
The free forms of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are considered to be the therapeutically active forms.

In vitro studies suggest that trimethoprim is a substrate of P-glycoprotein, OCT1 and OCT2, and that sulfamethoxazole is not a substrate of P-glycoprotein.
Approximately 70% of sulfamethoxazole and 44% of trimethoprim are bound to plasma proteins. The presence of 10 mg percent sulfamethoxazole in plasma decreases the protein binding of trimethoprim by an insignificant degree; trimethoprim does not influence the protein binding of sulfamethoxazole.
Peak blood levels for the individual components occur 1 to 4 hours after oral administration. The mean serum half-lives of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are 10 and 8 to 10 hours, respectively. However, patients with severely impaired renal function exhibit an increase in the half-lives of both components, requiring dosage regimen adjustment (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section). Detectable amounts of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are present in the blood 24 hours after drug administration. During administration of 800 mg sulfamethoxazole and 160 mg trimethoprim b.i.d., the mean steady-state plasma concentration of trimethoprim was 1.72 mcg/mL. The steady-state mean plasma levels of free and total sulfamethoxazole were 57.4 mcg/mL and 68 mcg/mL, respectively. These steady-state levels were achieved after three days of drug administration.1 Excretion of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is primarily by the kidneys through both glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. Urine concentrations of both sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are considerably higher than are the concentrations in the blood. The average percentage of the dose recovered in urine from 0 to 72 hours after a single oral dose of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is 84.5% for total sulfonamide and 66.8% for free trimethoprim. Thirty percent of the total sulfonamide is excreted as free sulfamethoxazole, with the remaining as N4 -acetylated metabolite.2 When administered together as sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, neither sulfamethoxazole nor trimethoprim affects the urinary excretion pattern of the other.
Both sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim distribute to sputum, vaginal fluid and middle ear fluid; trimethoprim also distributes to bronchial secretion, and both pass the placental barrier and are excreted in human milk.

Pharmacokinetics in Pediatric Patients

A simulation conducted with data from a pharmacokinetic study in 153 infants and children demonstrated that mean steady state AUC and maximum plasma concentration of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole would be comparable between pediatric patients 2 months to 18 years receiving 8/40 (trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole) mg/kg/day divided every 12 hours and adult patients receiving 320/1600 (trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole) mg/day.

Pharmacokinetics in Geriatric Patients

The pharmacokinetics of sulfamethoxazole 800 mg and trimethoprim 160 mg were studied in 6 geriatric subjects (mean age: 78.6 years) and 6 young healthy subjects (mean age: 29.3 years) using a non-U.S. approved formulation. Pharmacokinetic values for sulfamethoxazole in geriatric subjects were similar to those observed in young adult subjects. The mean renal clearance of trimethoprim was significantly lower in geriatric subjects compared with young adult subjects (19 mL/h/kg vs. 55 mL/h/kg). However, after normalizing by body weight, the apparent total body clearance of trimethoprim was on average 19% lower in geriatric subjects compared with young adult subjects.3

Microbiology

Mechanism of Action

Sulfamethoxazole inhibits bacterial synthesis of dihydrofolic acid by competing with para- aminobenzoic acid (PABA). Trimethoprim blocks the production of tetrahydrofolic acid from dihydrofolic acid by binding to and reversibly inhibiting the required enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase. Thus, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim blocks two consecutive steps in the biosynthesis of nucleic acids and proteins essential to many bacteria.

Resistance

In vitro studies have shown that bacterial resistance develops more slowly with both sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in combination than with either sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim alone.

Antimicrobial Activity

Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim have been shown to be active against most isolates of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section.

Aerobic gram-positive bacteria

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Aerobic gram-negative bacteria

Escherichia coli (including susceptible enterotoxigenic strains implicated in traveler’s diarrhea)

Klebsiella species

Enterobacter species

Haemophilus influenzae

Morganella morganii

Proteus mirabilis

Proteus vulgaris

Shigella flexneri

Shigella sonnei

Other Microorganisms

Pneumocystis jirovecii

Susceptibility Testing

For specific information regarding susceptibility test interpretive criteria and associated test methods and quality control standards recognized by FDA for this drug, please see: https://www.fda.gov/STIC.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE


To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim tablets and other antibacterial drugs, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to empiric selection of therapy.

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