Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim (Page 3 of 6)

Information for Patients

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim tablets should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim tablets are prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim tablets or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Patients should be instructed to maintain an adequate fluid intake in order to prevent crystalluria and stone formation.

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

Laboratory Tests

Complete blood counts and clinical chemistry testing should be done frequently in patients receiving sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. Perform urinalyses with careful microscopic examination and renal function tests during therapy, particularly for those patients with impaired renal function. Discontinue sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim if a significant electrolyte abnormality, renal insufficiency or reduction in the count of any formed blood element is noted.

Drug Interactions

Potential for Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim to Affect Other Drugs

Trimethoprim is an inhibitor of CYP2C8 as well as OCT2 transporter. Sulfamethoxazole is an inhibitor of CYP2C9. Avoid coadministration of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim with drugs that are substrates of CYP2C8 and 2C9 or OCT2.

Table 1: Drug Interactions with Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim

Drug(s) Recommendation Comments
Diuretics Avoid concurrent use In elderly patients concurrently receiving certain diuretics, primarily thiazides, an increased incidence of thrombocytopenia with purpura has been reported.
Warfarin Monitor prothrombin time and INR It has been reported that sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim may prolong the prothrombin time in patients who are receiving the anticoagulant warfarin (a CYP2C9 substrate). This interaction should be kept in mind when sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is given to patients already on anticoagulant therapy, and the coagulation time should be reassessed.
Phenytoin Monitor serum phenytoin levels Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim may inhibit the hepatic metabolism of phenytoin (a CYP2C9 substrate). Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, given at a common clinical dosage, increased the phenytoin half-life by 39% and decreased the phenytoin metabolic clearance rate by 27%. When administering these drugs concurrently, one should be alert for possible excessive phenytoin effect.
Methotrexate Avoid concurrent use Sulfonamides can also displace methotrexate from plasma protein binding sites and can compete with the renal transport of methotrexate, thus increasing free methotrexate concentrations.
Cyclosporine Avoid concurrent use There have been reports of marked but reversible nephrotoxicity with coadministration of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim and cyclosporine in renal transplant recipients.
Digoxin Monitor serum digoxin levels Increased digoxin blood levels can occur with concomitant sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim therapy, especially in elderly patients.
Indomethacin Avoid concurrent use Increased sulfamethoxazole blood levels may occur in patients who are also receiving indomethacin.
Pyrimethamine Avoid concurrent use Occasional reports suggest that patients receiving pyrimethamine as malaria prophylaxis in doses exceeding 25 mg weekly may develop megaloblastic anemia if sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is prescribed.
Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs) Monitor therapeutic response and adjust dose of TCA accordingly The efficacy of tricyclic antidepressants can decrease when coadministered with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim.
Oral Hypoglycemics Monitor blood glucose more frequently Like other sulfonamide-containing drugs, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim potentiates the effect of oral hypoglycemic that are metabolized by CYP2C8 (e.g., pioglitazone, repaglinide, and rosiglitazone) or CYP2C9 (e.g., glipizide and glyburide) or eliminated renally via OCT2 (e.g., metformin). Additional monitoring of blood glucose may be warranted.
Amantadine Avoid concurrent use In the literature, a single case of toxic delirium has been reported after concomitant intake of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim and amantadine (an OCT2 substrate). Cases of interactions with other OCT2 substrates, memantine and metformin, have also been reported.
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Avoid concurrent use In the literature, three cases of hyperkalemia in elderly patients have been reported after concomitant intake of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim and an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor.5,6
Zidovudine Monitor for hematologic toxicity Zidovudine and sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are known to induce hematological abnormalities. Hence, there is potential for an additive myelotoxicity when coadministered.7
Dofetilide Concurrent administration is contraindicated Elevated plasma concentrations of dofetilide have been reported following concurrent administration of trimethoprim and dofetilide. Increased plasma concentrations of dofetilide may cause serious ventricular arrhythmias associated with QT interval prolongation, including torsade de pointes.8,9
Procainamide Closely monitor for clinical and ECG signs of procainamide toxicity and/or procainamide plasma concentration if available Trimethoprim increases the plasma concentrations of procainamide and its active N-acetyl metabolite (NAPA) when trimethoprim and procainamide are coadministered. The increased procainamide and NAPA plasma concentrations that resulted from the pharmacokinetic interaction with trimethoprim are associated with further prolongation of the QTc interval.10

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, specifically the trimethoprim component, can interfere with a serum methotrexate assay as determined by the competitive binding protein technique (CBPA) when a bacterial dihydrofolate reductase is used as the binding protein. No interference occurs, however, if methotrexate is measured by a radioimmunoassay (RIA).

The presence of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim may also interfere with the Jaffé alkaline picrate reaction assay for creatinine, resulting in overestimations of about 10% in the range of normal values.

All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.

This site is provided for educational and informational purposes only, in accordance with our Terms of Use, and is not intended as a substitute for the advice of a medical doctor, nurse, nurse practitioner or other qualified health professional.

Privacy Policy | Copyright © 2021. All Rights Reserved.