In rat studies with NSAIDs, as with other drugs known to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, an increased incidence of dystocia, delayed parturition, and decreased pup survival occurred. The effects of sulindac on labor and delivery in pregnant women are unknown.
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk; however, it is secreted in the milk of lactating rats. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from sulindac, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
As with any NSAID, caution should be exercised in treating the elderly (65 years and older) since advancing age appears to increase the possibility of adverse reactions. Elderly patients seem to tolerate ulceration or bleeding less well than other individuals and many spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in this population (see WARNINGS,Gastrointestinal Effects – Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation).
Sulindac is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection and it may be useful to monitor renal function (See WARNINGS, Renal Effects).
The following adverse reactions were reported in clinical trials or have been reported since the drug was marketed. The probability exists of a causal relationship between sulindac and these adverse reactions. The adverse reactions which have been observed in clinical trials encompass observations in 1,865 patients, including 232 observed for at least 48 weeks.
Incidence Greater Than 1%
The most frequent types of adverse reactions occurring with sulindac are gastrointestinal; these include gastrointestinal pain (10%), dyspepsia***, nausea*** with or without vomiting, diarrhea***, constipation***, flatulence, anorexia and gastrointestinal cramps.
Central Nervous System
Dizziness***, headache***, nervousness.
Edema (see WARNINGS).
Incidence Less Than 1 in 100
Gastritis, gastroenteritis or colitis. Peptic ulcer and gastrointestinal bleeding have been reported. GI perforation and intestinal strictures (diaphragms) have been reported rarely.
Liver function abnormalities; jaundice, sometimes with fever; cholestasis; hepatitis; hepatic failure.
There have been rare reports of sulindac metabolites in common bile duct “sludge” and in biliary calculi in patients with symptoms of cholecystitis who underwent a cholecystectomy.
Pancreatitis (see PRECAUTIONS).
Stomatitis, sore or dry mucous membranes, alopecia, photosensitivity.
Erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and exfoliative dermatitis have been reported.
Congestive heart failure, especially in patients with marginal cardiac function; palpitation; hypertension.
Thrombocytopenia; ecchymosis, purpura, leukopenia, agranulocytosis, neutropenia, bone marrow depression, including aplastic anemia; hemolytic anemia, increased prothrombin time in patients on oral anticoagulants (see PRECAUTIONS).
Urine discoloration; dysuria; vaginal bleeding, hematuria; proteinuria; crystalluria; renal impairment, including renal failure; interstitial nephritis; nephrotic syndrome.
Renal calculi containing sulindac metabolites have been observed rarely.
Depression; psychic disturbances including acute psychosis.
Vertigo; insomnia; somnolence; paresthesia; convulsions; syncope; aseptic meningitis (especially in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disease, see PRECAUTIONS).
Blurred vision; visual disturbances; decreased hearing; metallic or bitter taste.
Anaphylaxis; angioneurotic edema; urticaria, bronchial spasm; dyspnea.
A potentially fatal apparent hypersensitivity syndrome has been reported. This syndrome may include constitutional symptoms (fever, chills, diaphoresis, flushing), cutaneous findings (rash or other dermatologic reactions – see above), conjunctivitis, involvement of major organs (changes in liver function including hepatic failure, jaundice, pancreatitis, pneumonitis with or without pleural effusion, leukopenia, leukocytosis, eosinophilia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, anemia, renal impairment, including renal failure), and other less specific findings (adenitis, arthralgia, arthritis, myalgia, fatigue, malaise, hypotension, chest pain, tachycardia).
Causal Relationship Unknown
A rare occurrence of fulminant necrotizing fasciitis, particularly in association with Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus, has been described in persons treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, sometimes with fatal outcome (see also PRECAUTIONS, General).
Other reactions have been reported in clinical trials or since the drug was marketed, but occurred under circumstances where a causal relationship could not be established. However, in these rarely reported events, that possibility cannot be excluded. Therefore, these observations are listed to serve as alerting information to physicians.
Disturbances of the retina and its vasculature.
***Incidence between 3% and 9%. Those reactions occurring in 1% to 3% of patients are not marked with an asterisk.
Cases of overdosage have been reported and rarely, deaths have occurred. The following signs and symptoms may be observed following overdosage; stupor, coma, diminished urine output and hypotension.
In the event of overdosage, the stomach should be emptied by inducing vomiting or by gastric lavage, and the patient carefully observed and given symptomatic and supportive treatment.
Animal studies show that absorption is decreased by the prompt administration of activated charcoal and excretion is enhanced by alkalinization of the urine.
Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of sulindac and other treatment options before deciding to use sulindac. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).
After observing the response to initial therapy with Sulindac Tablets USP, the dose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient’s needs.
Sulindac Tablets should be administered orally twice a day with food. The maximum dosage is 400 mg per day. Dosages above 400 mg per day are not recommended.
In osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis, the recommended starting dosage is 150 mg twice a day. The dosage may be lowered or raised depending on the response.
A prompt response (within one week) can be expected in about one-half of patients with osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Others may require longer to respond.
In acute painful shoulder (acute subacromial bursitis/supraspinatus tendinitis) and acute gouty arthritis, the recommended dosage is 200 mg twice a day. After a satisfactory response has been achieved, the dosage may be reduced according to the response. In acute painful shoulder, therapy for 7-14 days is usually adequate. In acute gouty arthritis, therapy for 7 days is usually adequate.
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