Pregnancy Category B. Reproduction studies have been performed in mice and rats at doses up to 40 times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to cefixime. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Safety and effectiveness of cefixime in children aged less than six months old have not been established. The incidence of gastrointestinal adverse reactions, including diarrhea and loose stools, in the pediatric patients receiving the suspension, was comparable to the incidence seen in adult patients receiving tablets.
Clinical studies did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and older to determine whether they respond differently than younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. A pharmacokinetic study in the elderly detected differences in pharmacokinetic parameters [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY (12.3)]. These differences were small and do not indicate a need for dosage adjustment of the drug in the elderly.
The dose of cefixime should be adjusted in patients with renal impairment as well as those undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and hemodialysis (HD). Patients on dialysis should be monitored carefully [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION (2.3)].
Gastric lavage may be indicated; otherwise, no specific antidote exists. Cefixime is not removed in significant quantities from the circulation by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Adverse reactions in small numbers of healthy adult volunteers receiving single doses up to 2 g of cefixime did not differ from the profile seen in patients treated at the recommended doses.
Cefixime is a semisynthetic, cephalosporin antibacterial for oral administration. Chemically, it is (6R,7R)-7-[2-(2-Amino-4-thiazolyl)glyoxylamido]-8-oxo-3-vinyl-5-thia-1-azabicyclo [4.2.0] oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid, 72 -(Z)-[O -(carboxy methyl) oxime] trihydrate.
Molecular weight = 507.50 as the trihydrate. Chemical Formula is C16 H15 N5 O7 S2 .3H2 O
The structural formula for cefixime is:
- Inactive ingredients contained in Suprax ® (cefixime) 400 mg tablets are: dibasic calcium phosphate, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, pregelatinized starch, titanium dioxide, and triacetin.
- Inactive ingredients contained in Suprax ® (cefixime) 400 mg capsules are: colloidal silicon dioxide, crospovidone, low substituted hydroxy propyl cellulose, magnesium stearate, and mannitol. The capsule shell contains the following inactive ingredients: ferric oxide black, ferric oxide red, gelatin, potassium hydroxide, propylene glycol, shellac, sodium lauryl sulfate, and titanium dioxide.
- Inactive ingredients contained in Suprax ® (cefixime) 100 mg or 150 mg or 200 mg chewable tablets are: aspartame, colloidal silicon dioxide, crospovidone, FD&C Red # 40 Aluminium Lake, low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose, magnesium stearate, mannitol, fantasy flavor permaseal, and tutti frutti flavor.
- Inactive ingredients contained in Suprax ® (cefixime) powder for oral suspension are: colloidal silicon dioxide, sodium benzoate, strawberry flavor, sucralose (only in 500 mg/5 mL strength), sucrose, and xanthan gum.
Cefixime is a semisynthetic cephalosporin antibacterial drug [see Microbiology (12.4)].
Suprax tablets and suspension, given orally, are about 40% to 50% absorbed whether administered with or without food; however, time to maximal absorption is increased approximately 0.8 hours when administered with food. A single 200 mg tablet of cefixime produces an average peak serum concentration of approximately 2 mcg/mL (range 1 to 4 mcg/mL); a single 400 mg tablet produces an average peak concentration of approximately 3.7 mcg/mL (range 1.3 to 7.7 mcg/mL). The oral suspension produces average peak concentrations approximately 25% to 50% higher than the tablets, when tested in normal adult volunteers. Two hundred and 400 mg doses of oral suspension produce average peak concentrations of 3 mcg/mL (range 1 to 4.5 mcg/mL) and 4.6 mcg/mL (range 1.9 to 7.7 mcg/mL), respectively, when tested in normal adult volunteers. The area under the time versus concentration curve (AUC) is greater by approximately 10% to 25% with the oral suspension than with the tablet after doses of 100 to 400 mg, when tested in normal adult volunteers. This increased absorption should be taken into consideration if the oral suspension is to be substituted for the tablet. Because of the lack of bioequivalence, tablets should not be substituted for oral suspension in the treatment of otitis media [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION (2)]. Cross-over studies of tablet versus suspension have not been performed in children.
The 400 mg capsule is bioequivalent to the 400 mg tablet under fasting conditions. However, food reduces the absorption following administration of the capsule by approximately 15% based on AUC and 25% based on Cmax .
Peak serum concentrations occur between 2 and 6 hours following oral administration of a single 200 mg tablet, a single 400 mg tablet or 400 mg of cefixime suspension. Peak serum concentrations occur between 2 and 5 hours following a single administration of 200 mg of suspension. Peak serum concentrations occur between 3 and 8 hours following oral administration of a single 400 mg capsule.
Serum protein binding is concentration independent with a bound fraction of approximately 65%. In a multiple dose study conducted with a research formulation which is less bioavailable than the tablet or suspension, there was little accumulation of drug in serum or urine after dosing for 14 days. Adequate data on CSF levels of cefixime are not available.
Metabolism and Excretion
There is no evidence of metabolism of cefixime in vivo. Approximately 50% of the absorbed dose is excreted unchanged in the urine in 24 hours. In animal studies, it was noted that cefixime is also excreted in the bile in excess of 10% of the administered dose. The serum half-life of cefixime in healthy subjects is independent of dosage form and averages 3 to 4 hours but may range up to 9 hours in some normal volunteers.
Geriatrics: Average AUCs at steady state in elderly patients are approximately 40% higher than average AUCs in other healthy adults. Differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters between 12 young and 12 elderly subjects who received 400 mg of cefixime once daily for 5 days are summarized as follows:
|Pharmacokinetic Parameters ( mean ± SD ) for Cefixime in Both Young & Elderly Subjects|
|Cm a x (mg/L)||4.74 ± 1.43||5.68 ± 1.83|
|Tm a x (h)*||3.9 ± 0.3||4.3 ± 0.6|
|AUC (mg.h/L)*||34.9 ± 12.2||49.5 ± 19.1|
|T½ (h)*||3.5 ± 0.6||4.2 ± 0.4|
|Ca v e (mg/L)*||1.42 ±0.50||1.99 ± 0.75|
However, these increases were not clinically significant [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION (2)].
Renal Impairment: In subjects with moderate impairment of renal function (20 to 40 mL/min creatinine clearance), the average serum half-life of cefixime is prolonged to 6.4 hours. In severe renal impairment (5 to 20 mL/min creatinine clearance), the half-life increased to an average of 11.5 hours. The drug is not cleared significantly from the blood by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. However, a study indicated that with doses of 400 mg, patients undergoing hemodialysis have similar blood profiles as subjects with creatinine clearances of 21 to 60 mL/min.
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