The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of other formulations of granisetron. Because they are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
|System Organ Class||Adverse Reactions|
|Cardiovascular||bradycardia, chest pain, palpitations, sick sinus syndrome|
Serotonin syndrome (including altered mental status, autonomic instability, and neuromuscular symptoms) has been described following the concomitant use of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists and other serotonergic drugs, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. If symptoms occur, discontinue SUSTOL and initiate supportive treatment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
There are no available data on the use of SUSTOL in pregnant women. Limited published data on granisetron use during pregnancy are not sufficient to inform a drug-associated risk. In animal reproduction studies, no adverse developmental effects were observed in pregnant rats and rabbits administered granisetron hydrochloride during organogenesis at intravenous doses up to 61 times and 41 times respectively the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of SUSTOL 10 mg/week [see Data].
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
Reproduction studies with granisetron hydrochloride have been performed in pregnant rats following administration during the period of organogenesis at intravenous doses up to 9 mg/kg/day (approximately 61 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of SUSTOL 10 mg/week, based on body surface area) and oral doses up to 125 mg/kg/day (approximately 851 times the MRHD of SUSTOL 10 mg/week, based on body surface area). Reproduction studies have been performed in pregnant rabbits in which granisetron hydrochloride was administered during the period of organogenesis at intravenous doses up to 3 mg/kg/day (approximately 41 times the MRHD of SUSTOL 10 mg/week, based on body surface area) and at oral doses up to 32 mg/kg/day (approximately 436 times the MRHD of SUSTOL 10 mg/week, based on body surface area). These studies did not reveal any evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to granisetron hydrochloride.
Reproduction studies with the polymer vehicle for SUSTOL have been performed in pregnant rats and rabbits following administration of the polymer vehicle during the period of organogenesis at subcutaneous doses up to 0.295 and 1.18 g per day, respectively, (approximately 45 and 36 times, respectively the amount of polymer vehicle present in the maximum recommended /weekly single human dose of SUSTOL, based on body surface area). These studies did not reveal any evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to the polymer vehicle. A pre and postnatal development study with the polymer vehicle for SUSTOL in rats showed no evidence of any adverse effects on pre and postnatal development at subcutaneous doses (administered on gestation days 7 through lactation day 20) up to 0.295 g per day (approximately 45 times the amount of polymer vehicle present in the maximum recommended /weekly single human dose of SUSTOL, based on body surface area).
There are no data on the presence of SUSTOL in human milk, the effects of SUSTOL on the breastfed infant, or the effects of SUSTOL on milk production. The lack of clinical data during lactation precludes a clear determination of the risk of SUSTOL to an infant during lactation; therefore, the developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for SUSTOL and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from SUSTOL or from the underlying maternal condition.
The safety and effectiveness of SUSTOL in pediatric patients under 18 years of age have not been established.
Of the 738 patients administered 10 mg of SUSTOL in the comparator controlled studies, 177 (24%) were 65 and over while 39 (5%) were 75 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients; and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
Breakdown products of the polymer vehicle in SUSTOL can be detected in urine of healthy subjects [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)]. There are no pharmacokinetic data regarding elimination of the polymer vehicle of SUSTOL in patients with renal impairment and the clinical significance of potential prolonged elimination is not known. Avoid SUSTOL in patients with severe renal impairment. In patients with moderate renal impairment, administer SUSTOL not more frequently than once every 14 days [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
There is no specific antidote for granisetron overdosage. In the case of overdosage, symptomatic treatment should be given. Overdosage of up to 38.5 mg of granisetron hydrochloride, as a single intravenous injection, has been reported without symptoms or with only the occurrence of headache.
SUSTOL (granisetron) extended-release injection, contains granisetron, a serotonin-3 (5-HT3 ) receptor antagonist. Granisetron is 1-methyl-N-[(1R,3r,5S)-9-methyl-9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]non-3-yl]-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide with a molecular weight of 312.4. Its empirical formula is C18 H24 N4 O, with the following chemical structure:
Granisetron is a white to off-white crystalline solid that is insoluble in water.
SUSTOL is a sterile, clear, colorless to slightly yellow, viscous liquid supplied in a single-dose, pre-filled syringe. Each syringe contains 10 mg granisetron incorporated in an extended-release polymer formulation; the inactive ingredients are triethylene glycol poly(orthoester) polymer, 392 mg and polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether, NF, 98 mg.
Granisetron is a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3 ) receptor antagonist with little or no affinity for other serotonin receptors, including 5-HT1 , 5-HT1A , 5-HT1B/C , 5-HT2 ; for alpha1- , alpha2- , or beta-adrenoreceptors; for dopamine-D2 ; or for histamine-H1 ; benzodiazepine; picrotoxin or opioid receptors.
Serotonin receptors of the 5-HT3 type are located peripherally on vagal nerve terminals and centrally in the chemoreceptor trigger zone of the area postrema. During chemotherapy that induces vomiting, mucosal enterochromaffin cells release serotonin, which stimulates 5-HT3 receptors. This evokes vagal afferent discharge, inducing vomiting. Animal studies demonstrate that, in binding to 5-HT3 receptors, granisetron blocks serotonin stimulation and subsequent vomiting after emetogenic stimuli such as cisplatin. In the ferret animal model, a single granisetron injection prevented vomiting due to high-dose cisplatin or arrested vomiting within 5 to 30 seconds.
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