Immune reconstitution syndrome has been reported in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy. During the initial phase of combination antiretroviral treatment, patients whose immune systems respond may develop an inflammatory response to indolent or residual opportunistic infections (such as Mycobacterium avium infection, cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia [PCP], or tuberculosis), which may necessitate further evaluation and treatment.
Autoimmune disorders (such as Graves’ disease, polymyositis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and autoimmune hepatitis) have also been reported to occur in the setting of immune reconstitution; however, the time to onset is more variable, and can occur many months after initiation of antiretroviral treatment.
Postmarketing cases of renal impairment, including acute renal failure, proximal renal tubulopathy (PRT), and Fanconi syndrome have been reported with TAF-containing products; while most of these cases were characterized by potential confounders that may have contributed to the reported renal events, it is also possible these factors may have predisposed patients to tenofovir-related adverse events [see Adverse Reactions (6.1, 6.2)]. SYMTUZA is not recommended in patients with estimated creatinine clearance below 30 mL per minute.
Patients taking tenofovir prodrugs who have impaired renal function and those taking nephrotoxic agents including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are at increased risk of developing renal-related adverse reactions.
Prior to or when initiating SYMTUZA and during treatment with SYMTUZA, on a clinically appropriate schedule, assess serum creatinine, estimated creatinine clearance, urine glucose, and urine protein in all patients. In patients with chronic kidney disease, also assess serum phosphorus. Discontinue SYMTUZA in patients who develop clinically significant decreases in renal function or evidence of Fanconi syndrome.
Cobicistat, a component of SYMTUZA, produces elevations of serum creatinine due to inhibition of tubular secretion of creatinine without affecting glomerular filtration. This effect should be considered when interpreting changes in estimated creatinine clearance in patients initiating SYMTUZA, particularly in patients with medical conditions or receiving drugs needing monitoring with estimated creatinine clearance. The elevation is typically seen within 2 weeks of starting therapy and is reversible after discontinuation. Patients who experience a confirmed increase in serum creatinine of greater than 0.4 mg/dL should be closely monitored for renal safety.
Darunavir contains a sulfonamide moiety. Monitor patients with a known sulfonamide allergy after initiating SYMTUZA. In clinical studies with darunavir co-administered with ritonavir, the incidence and severity of rash were similar in subjects with or without a history of sulfonamide allergy.
Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogs, including emtricitabine, a component of SYMTUZA, and TDF, another prodrug of tenofovir, alone or in combination with other antiretrovirals. Treatment with SYMTUZA should be suspended in any patient who develops clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity (which may include hepatomegaly and steatosis even in the absence of marked transaminase elevations).
New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of pre-existing diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia have been reported during postmarketing surveillance in HIV infected patients receiving HIV protease inhibitor (PI) therapy. Some patients required either initiation or dose adjustments of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents for treatment of these events. In some cases, diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred. In those patients who discontinued PI therapy, hyperglycemia persisted in some cases. Because these events have been reported voluntarily during clinical practice, estimates of frequency cannot be made and causal relationships between HIV PI therapy and these events have not been established.
Redistribution/accumulation of body fat, including central obesity, dorsocervical fat enlargement (buffalo hump), peripheral wasting, facial wasting, breast enlargement, and “cushingoid appearance” have been observed in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. The mechanism and long-term consequences of these events are currently unknown. A causal relationship has not been established.
There have been reports of increased bleeding, including spontaneous skin hematomas and hemarthrosis in patients with hemophilia type A and B treated with HIV protease inhibitors (PIs). In some patients, additional factor VIII was given. In more than half of the reported cases, treatment with HIV PIs was continued or reintroduced if treatment had been discontinued. A causal relationship between PI therapy and these episodes has not been established.
The following adverse reactions are discussed in other sections of the labeling:
- Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
- Hepatotoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
- Severe skin reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
- Immune reconstitution syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
- New onset or worsening renal impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
- Lactic acidosis/severe hepatomegaly with steatosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Clinical Trials in Adults
Adverse Reactions in Adults with No Prior Antiretroviral Treatment History
The safety profile of SYMTUZA in HIV-1 infected adults with no prior antiretroviral treatment history is based on Week 48 data from the AMBER trial, a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial where a total of 362 subjects received SYMTUZA once daily and 363 subjects received a combination of PREZCOBIX® (fixed-dose combination of darunavir and cobicistat) and fixed-dose combination of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF).
The proportion of subjects who discontinued treatment with SYMTUZA or PREZCOBIX+FTC/TDF due to adverse events, regardless of severity, were 2% and 4% respectively.
An overview of the most frequent (occurring in at least 2% of subjects) adverse reactions irrespective of severity reported in AMBER are presented in Table 1. An overview of the most frequent laboratory abnormalities of at least Grade 2 severity reported in AMBER are presented in Table 2. Changes from baseline in lipid parameters for patients receiving SYMTUZA and those receiving PREZCOBIX + FTC/TDF are presented in Table 3.
Most adverse reactions during treatment with SYMTUZA were grade 1 or 2 in severity. One grade 3 adverse reaction was reported and no grade 4 adverse reactions were reported during treatment with SYMTUZA.
|All Grades||At least Grade 2||All Grades||At least Grade 2|
Adverse Reactions in Virologically-Suppressed Adults
The safety profile of SYMTUZA in virologically-suppressed HIV-1 infected adults is based on Week 48 data from 1,141 subjects in the EMERALD trial, a randomized, open-label, active-controlled trial where 763 subjects with a stable antiretroviral regimen consisting of a boosted protease inhibitor (bPI) [either darunavir once daily or atazanavir (both boosted with ritonavir or cobicistat), or lopinavir with ritonavir] combined with FTC/TDF switched to SYMTUZA, and 378 subjects who continued their treatment regimen of a bPI with FTC/TDF. Overall, the safety profile of SYMTUZA in subjects in this study was similar to that in subjects with no prior antiretroviral treatment history. The proportion of subjects who discontinued treatment with SYMTUZA due to adverse events, regardless of severity, was 1%.
Less Frequent Adverse Reactions
The following adverse reactions occurred in less than 2% of adults with no antiretroviral treatment history or virologically suppressed subjects receiving SYMTUZA, or are from studies described in the prescribing information of the individual component PREZISTA (darunavir).
Gastrointestinal Disorders: dyspepsia, pancreatitis (acute), vomiting
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: angioedema, pruritus, Stevens-Johnson syndrome
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders: anorexia, diabetes mellitus, lipodystrophy
Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: gynecomastia
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: myalgia, osteonecrosis
Psychiatric Disorders: abnormal dreams
Immune System Disorders: (drug) hypersensitivity, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
Hepatobiliary Disorders: acute hepatitis
|Laboratory Parameter Grade||Limit||SYMTUZAN=362||PREZCOBIX+FTC/TDFN=363|
|Grade 2||>1.3 to 1.8 × ULN||4%||14%|
|Grade 4||≥3.5× ULN||<1%||0|
|Grade 2||301–500 mg/dL||7%||4%|
|Grade 3||501–1,000 mg/dL||1%||1%|
|Grade 4||>1,000 mg/dL||<1%||<1%|
|Grade 2||240–<300 mg/dL||17%||4%|
|Grade 3||≥ 300 mg/dL||2%||1%|
|Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol|
|Grade 2||160–189 mg/dL||9%||4%|
|Grade 3||≥190 mg/dL||5%||1%|
|Elevated Glucose Levels|
|Grade 2||126–250 mg/dL||6%||6%|
|Grade 3||251–500 mg/dL||<1%||0|
ALT and/or AST elevations (Grade 2–4 combined) occurred in 2% of adult subjects receiving SYMTUZA with no antiretroviral treatment history in AMBER (Week 48 Analysis). Results were consistent in subjects receiving PREZCOBIX+FTC/TDF.
|Baseline||Week 48||Baseline||Week 48|
|Total cholesterol to HDL ratio||4.1||0.2||4.0||0.1|
The percentage of subjects starting any lipid lowering drug during treatment in the SYMTUZA and PREZCOBIX + FTC/TDF arm were 1.7% (n=6) and 0.6% (n=2), respectively.
Renal Laboratory Tests
In the AMBER trial, which enrolled 725 adults with no prior antiretroviral treatment history, subjects had a median baseline eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate) of 119 mL/min (SYMTUZA) and 118 mL/min (PREZCOBIX + FTC/TDF). From baseline to Week 48, mean (SD) serum creatinine increased by 0.05 (0.10) mg/dL in the SYMTUZA group and by 0.09 (0.11) mg/dL in the PREZCOBIX + FTC/TDF group. Median serum creatinine was 0.90 mg/dL (SYMTUZA) and 0.89 mg/dL (PREZCOBIX + FTC/TDF) at baseline and 0.95 mg/dL (SYMTUZA) and 0.97 mg/dL (PREZCOBIX +FTC/TDF) at Week 48. Increases in serum creatinine occurred by Week 2 of treatment and remained stable. Median urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPCR) was 47 mg/g (SYMTUZA) and 51 mg/g (PREZCOBIX + FTC/TDF) at baseline and 30 mg/g (SYMTUZA) and 34 mg/g (PREZCOBIX + FTC/TDF) at Week 48.
In the EMERALD trial which had 1,141 virologically-suppressed adults treated with an HIV protease inhibitor and TDF containing regimen with a median baseline eGFR of 104 mL/min (SYMTUZA) and 103 mL/min (bPI+FTC/TDF) who were randomized to continue their treatment regimen or switch to SYMTUZA, at Week 48, mean serum creatinine was similar to baseline for both those continuing baseline treatment and those switching to SYMTUZA. Mean (SD) serum creatinine was 0.98 (0.18) mg/dL (SYMTUZA) and 0.98 (0.19) mg/dL (bPI+FTC/TDF) at baseline and 0.99 (0.18) mg/dL (SYMTUZA) and 0.99 (0.21) mg/dL (bPI+FTC/TDF) at Week 48. Median serum creatinine was 0.97 mg/dL (SYMTUZA) and 0.98 mg/dL (bPI+FTC/TDF) at baseline and 1.0 mg/dL (SYMTUZA) and 0.97 mg/dL (bPI+FTC/TDF) at Week 48. Median UPCR was 62 mg/g (SYMTUZA) and 63 mg/g (bPI+FTC/TDF) at baseline and 37 mg/g (SYMTUZA) and 53 mg/g (bPI+FTC/TDF) at Week 48.
Bone Mineral Density
The effects of SYMTUZA compared to PREZCOBIX + FTC/TDF on bone mineral density (BMD) change from baseline to Week 48 were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The mean percentage change in BMD from baseline to Week 48 was −0.7% with SYMTUZA compared to −2.4% with PREZCOBIX + FTC/TDF at the lumbar spine and 0.2% compared to −2.7% at the total hip. BMD declines of 5% or greater at the lumbar spine were experienced by 16% of SYMTUZA subjects and 22% of PREZCOBIX + FTC/TDF subjects. BMD declines of 7% or greater at the femoral neck were experienced by 2% of SYMTUZA subjects and 15% of PREZCOBIX + FTC/TDF subjects. The long-term clinical significance of these BMD changes is not known.
In EMERALD, bPI and TDF-treated subjects were randomized to continue their TDF-based regimen or switch to SYMTUZA; changes in BMD from baseline to Week 48 were assessed by DXA. The mean percentage change in BMD from baseline to Week 48 was 1.5% with SYMTUZA compared to −0.6% with bPI + FTC/TDF at the lumbar spine and 1.4% compared to -0.3% at the total hip. BMD declines of 5% or greater at the lumbar spine were experienced by 2% of SYMTUZA subjects and 9% of bPI + FTC/TDF subjects. BMD declines of 7% or greater at the femoral neck were experienced by no SYMTUZA subjects and 2% of bPI + FTC/TDF subjects. The long-term clinical significance of these BMD changes is not known.
Clinical Trials in Pediatric Patients
Adverse Reactions in Pediatric Patients Weighing At Least 40 kg
No clinical trials with SYMTUZA were performed in pediatric patients. However, the safety of the components of SYMTUZA was evaluated in pediatric subjects of 12 to less than 18 years of age through clinical trials GS-US-216-0128 (virologically-suppressed, N=7 with weight ≥40 kg) for darunavir co-administered with cobicistat and other antiretroviral agents, and GS-US-292-0106 (treatment-naïve, N=50 with weight ≥35 kg) for a fixed-dose combination regimen containing cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide together with elvitegravir. Safety analyses of the trials in these pediatric subjects did not identify new safety concerns compared to the known safety profile of SYMTUZA in adult subjects [see Clinical Studies (14.3)].
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