Symtuza (Page 5 of 10)

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that HIV-infected mothers in the United States must not breastfeed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV-1 infection.

Based on published data, emtricitabine has been shown to be present in human breast milk. There are no data on the presence of darunavir, cobicistat, or TAF in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Darunavir and cobicistat are present in the milk of lactating rats. Tenofovir has been shown to be present in the milk of lactating rats and rhesus monkeys after administration of TDF (see Data). Because of the potential for (1) HIV transmission (in HIV-negative infants), (2) developing viral resistance (in HIV-positive infants), and (3) serious adverse reactions in breastfed infants, instruct mothers not to breastfeed if they are receiving SYMTUZA.

Data

Animal Data

Darunavir: Studies in rats (with darunavir alone or with ritonavir) have demonstrated that darunavir is excreted in milk. In the rat pre- and post-natal development study, a reduction in pup body weight gain was observed due to exposure of pups to drug substances via milk. The maximal maternal plasma exposures achieved with darunavir (up to 1000 mg/kg with ritonavir) were approximately 66% of those obtained in humans at the recommended clinical dose of darunavir with ritonavir.

Cobicistat: During the pre/postnatal developmental toxicology study, at doses up to 75 mg/kg/day, mean cobicistat milk to plasma ratio of up to 1.9 was measured 2 hours after administration to rats on lactation day 10.

Tenofovir Alafenamide: Studies in rats and monkeys have demonstrated that tenofovir is excreted in milk. Tenofovir was excreted into the milk of lactating rats following oral administration of TDF (up to 600 mg/kg/day) at up to approximately 24% of the median plasma concentration in the highest dosed animals at lactation day 11. Tenofovir was excreted into the milk of lactating rhesus monkeys, following a single subcutaneous (30 mg/kg) dose of tenofovir at concentrations up to approximately 4% of plasma concentration resulting in exposure (AUC) of approximately 20% of plasma exposure.

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of SYMTUZA for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in pediatric patients weighing at least 40 kg was established through studies with components of SYMTUZA. Use of SYMTUZA in this group is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of SYMTUZA in adults with additional pharmacokinetic, safety, and virologic data from studies of components of SYMTUZA (Trials GS-US-216-0128 and GS-US-292-0106) in pediatric subjects with HIV-1 infection aged 12 to less than 18 years [see Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), and Clinical Studies (14.3)].

The safety and effectiveness of SYMTUZA have not been established in pediatric patients weighing less than 40 kg.

Darunavir, a component of SYMTUZA is not recommended in pediatric patients below 3 years of age because of toxicity and mortality observed in juvenile rats dosed with darunavir.

Juvenile Animal Toxicity Data

Darunavir: In a juvenile toxicity study where rats were directly dosed with darunavir (up to 1000 mg/kg), deaths occurred from post-natal day 5 at plasma exposure levels ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 of the human exposure levels. In a 4-week rat toxicology study, when dosing was initiated on post-natal day 23 (the human equivalent of 2 to 3 years of age), no deaths were observed with a plasma exposure (in combination with ritonavir) 2 times the human plasma exposure levels.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Clinical trials of SYMTUZA included 35 subjects aged above 65 years of which 26 received SYMTUZA. No differences in safety or efficacy have been observed between elderly subjects and those aged 65 years or less. In general, caution should be exercised in the administration and monitoring of SYMTUZA in elderly patients, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

8.6 Renal Impairment

SYMTUZA is not recommended in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance below 30 mL per minute). No dosage adjustment of SYMTUZA is required in patients with creatinine clearance greater than or equal to 30 mL per minute [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Cobicistat has been shown to decrease creatinine clearance without affecting actual renal glomerular function. Dosing recommendations are not available for drugs that require dosage adjustment for renal impairment when used in combination with SYMTUZA [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].

8.7 Hepatic Impairment

No dosage adjustment of SYMTUZA is required in patients with mild (Child-Pugh Class A) or moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) hepatic impairment. SYMTUZA has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C) and there are only limited data regarding the use of SYMTUZA components in this population. Therefore, SYMTUZA is not recommended for use in patients with severe hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

10. OVERDOSAGE

Human experience of acute overdose with SYMTUZA is limited. There is no specific antidote for overdose with SYMTUZA. Treatment of overdose with SYMTUZA consists of general supportive measures including monitoring of vital signs and observation of the clinical status of the patient.

Since darunavir and cobicistat are highly bound to plasma proteins, it is unlikely that they will be significantly removed by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Hemodialysis treatment removes approximately 30% of the emtricitabine dose over a 3-hour dialysis period starting within 1.5 hours of emtricitabine dosing (blood flow rate of 400 mL/min and a dialysate flow rate of 600 mL/min). Tenofovir is efficiently removed by hemodialysis with an extraction coefficient of approximately 54%. It is not known whether emtricitabine or tenofovir can be removed by peritoneal dialysis.

11. DESCRIPTION

SYMTUZA® (darunavir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide) is a fixed-dose combination tablet.

  • Darunavir is an inhibitor of the HIV-1 protease.
  • Cobicistat is a mechanism-based inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes of the CYP3A family.
  • Emtricitabine, a synthetic nucleoside analog of cytidine, is an HIV nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (HIV NRTI).
  • Tenofovir alafenamide, an HIV NRTI, is converted in vivo to tenofovir, an acyclic nucleoside phosphonate (nucleotide) analog of adenosine 5′-monophosphate.

SYMTUZA tablets are for oral administration. Each tablet contains darunavir ethanolate equivalent to 800 mg of darunavir, 150 mg of cobicistat, 200 mg of emtricitabine, and 11.2 mg of tenofovir alafenamide fumarate equivalent to 10 mg of tenofovir alafenamide. The tablets include the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate, and microcrystalline cellulose. The tablets are film-coated with a coating material containing polyethylene glycol (macrogol), polyvinyl alcohol (partially hydrolyzed), talc, titanium dioxide, and yellow ferric oxide.

Darunavir: Darunavir, in the form of darunavir ethanolate, has the following chemical name: [(1S ,2R)-3-[[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl](2-methylpropyl)amino]-2-hydroxy-1-(phenylmethyl)propyl]-carbamic acid (3R ,3aS ,6aR)-hexahydrofuro[2,3-b ]furan-3-yl ester monoethanolate. Its molecular formula is C27 H37 N3 O7 S ∙ C2 H5 OH and its molecular weight is 593.73. Darunavir ethanolate has the following structural formula:

Chemical Structure
(click image for full-size original)

Cobicistat: Cobicistat is adsorbed onto silicon dioxide. The chemical name for cobicistat is 1,3-thiazol-5-ylmethyl[(2R ,5R)-5-{[(2S)-2-[(methyl{[2-(propan-2-yl)-1,3-thiazol-4-yl]methyl}carbamoyl)amino]-4-(morpholin-4yl)butanoyl]amino}-1,6-diphenylhexan-2-yl]carbamate. It has a molecular formula of C40 H53 N7 O5 S2 and a molecular weight of 776.02. It has the following structural formula:

Chemical Structure
(click image for full-size original)

Emtricitabine: The chemical name of emtricitabine is 4-amino-5-fluoro-1-(2R -hydroxymethyl-[1,3]-oxathiolan-5S -yl)-(1H)-pyrimidin-2-one. Emtricitabine is the (-)enantiomer of a thio analog of cytidine, which differs from other cytidine analogs in that it has a fluorine in the 5 position. Emtricitabine has a molecular formula of C8 H10 FN3 O3 S and a molecular weight of 247.24. It has the following structural formula:

Chemical StructureChemical Structure

Tenofovir alafenamide: The chemical name of tenofovir alafenamide fumarate drug substance is L-alanine, N -[(S)-[[(1R)-2-(6-amino-9H -purin-9-yl)-1-methylethoxy]methyl]phenoxyphosphinyl]-,1-methylethyl ester, (2E)-2-butenedioate (2:1). Tenofovir alafenamide fumarate has a molecular formula of C21 H29 O5 N6 P∙½(C4 H4 O4 ) and a formula weight of 534.50. It has the following structural formula:

Chemical Structure
(click image for full-size original)

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