Taclonex (Page 3 of 5)

8.5 Geriatric Use

Of the total number of subjects in the clinical studies of Taclonex® Ointment, approximately 14% were 65 years and older and approximately 3% were 75 years and over.

No overall differences in safety or effectiveness of Taclonex® Ointment were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. All other reported clinical experience has not identified any differences in response between elderly and younger patients. However, greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

10 OVERDOSAGE

Topically applied Taclonex® Ointment can be absorbed in sufficient amounts to produce systemic effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2)].

11 DESCRIPTION

Taclonex® (calcipotriene and betamethasone dipropionate) Ointment, 0.005%/0.064% contains calcipotriene hydrate and betamethasone dipropionate. It is intended for topical use only.

Calcipotriene hydrate is a synthetic vitamin D3 analogue.

Chemically, calcipotriene hydrate is (5Z,7E,22E,24S)-24-cyclopropyl-9,10-secochola-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-1(alpha),3(beta),24-triol,hydrate, with the empirical formula C27 H40 O3 ,H2 O, a molecular weight of 430.6, and the following structural formula:


Calcipotriene hydrate structure


Calcipotriene hydrate is a white to almost white crystalline compound.

Betamethasone dipropionate is a synthetic corticosteroid.

Betamethasone dipropionate has the chemical name 9-fluoro-11(beta), 17,21-trihydroxy-16(beta)-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione17,21-dipropionate, with the empirical formula C28 H37 FO7 , a molecular weight of 504.6, and the following structural formula:


betamethasone dipropionate structure

Betamethasone dipropionate is a white to almost white odorless powder.


Each gram of Taclonex® Ointment contains 52.18 mcg of calcipotriene hydrate (equivalent to 50 mcg of calcipotriene) and 0.643 mg of betamethasone dipropionate (equivalent to 0.5 mg of betamethasone) in an off-white to yellow paraffin ointment base of butylhydroxytoluene, mineral oil, polyoxypropylene stearyl ether, all-rac-alpha-tocopherol, and white petrolatum.

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Taclonex® Ointment combines the pharmacological effects of calcipotriene hydrate as a synthetic vitamin D3 analogue and betamethasone dipropionate as a synthetic corticosteroid. However, while their pharmacologic and clinical effects are known, the exact mechanisms of their actions in plaque psoriasis are unknown.

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

Vasoconstriction:

In a vasoconstrictor trial in healthy subjects, the skin blanching response of Taclonex® Ointment was consistent with that of a potent corticosteroid when compared with other topical corticosteroids. However, similar blanching scores do not necessarily imply therapeutic equivalence.


Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis Suppression:

HPA axis suppression was evaluated in four trials (Trial A, B, C and D) following the application of Taclonex® Ointment.

In Trial A, Taclonex® Ointment was applied once daily for 4 weeks to adult subjects (N = 12) with plaque psoriasis to study its effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Of eleven subjects tested, none demonstrated adrenal suppression as indicated by a 30-minute post-stimulation cortisol level ≤ 18 mcg/dL.

In Trial B, Taclonex® Ointment was evaluated in adult subjects with plaque psoriasis (N = 19). One subject demonstrated adrenal suppression.

In Trial C, HPA axis suppression was evaluated in adult subjects (N=32) with extensive plaque psoriasis involving at least 30% of the scalp and, in total, 15-30% of the body surface area. Treatment consisted of once daily application of Taclonex Scalp® Topical Suspension on the scalp in combination with Taclonex® Ointment on the body. Adrenal suppression as indicated by a 30-minutes post-stimulation cortisol level < 18 mcg/dL was observed in 5 of 32 subjects (15.6%) after 4 weeks of treatment as per the recommended duration of use [ see Dosage and Administration (2)].


In Trial D, HPA axis suppression was evaluated in subjects 12 to 17 years (N=32) with plaque psoriasis of the body involving 5-30% of the body surface area. Treatment consisted of once daily application of Taclonex® Ointment to the affected areas for up to 4 weeks. Mean weekly dose was 29.6 g with a range of 8.1-55.8 g/week. Adrenal suppression as indicated by a 30-minute post-stimulation cortisol level ≤18 mcg/dL was observed in none of 32 evaluable subjects after 4 weeks of treatment [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].

Effects on Calcium Metabolism

In Trial C described above, the effects of once daily application of Taclonex® Ointment on the body in combination with Taclonex Scalp® Topical Suspension on the scalp on calcium metabolism were also examined. Elevated urinary calcium levels outside the normal range were observed in 1 of 35 subjects (2.9%) after 4 weeks of treatment.


In Trial D described above, calcium metabolism was evaluated in a total of 33 subjects aged 12 to 17 years with plaque psoriasis involving 5-30% of the body surface area who underwent once daily application of Taclonex® Ointment for up to 4 weeks. No cases of hypercalcemia and no clinically relevant changes in urinary calcium were reported. However, one subject had a normal urinary calcium:creatinine ratio at baseline (3.75 mmol/g), which increased above the normal range at week 4 (16 mmol/g). There were no relevant changes in albumin-corrected serum calcium or other markers of calcium metabolism for this subject. The clinical significance of this finding is unknown.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

In Trial C described above, the systemic effect of Taclonex® Ointment in extensive plaque psoriasis was investigated. In this trial, the serum levels of calcipotriene and betamethasone dipropionate and their major metabolites were measured after 4 weeks (maximum recommended duration of treatment) and also after 8 weeks of once daily application of Taclonex® Ointment on the body in combination with Taclonex Scalp® Topical Suspension on the scalp. Both calcipotriene and betamethasone dipropionate were below the lower limit of quantification in all serum samples of the 34 subjects evaluated. However, one major metabolite of calcipotriene (MC1080) was quantifiable in 10 of 34 (29.4%) subjects at week 4 and in five of 12 (41.7%) subjects at week 8. The major metabolite of betamethasone dipropionate, betamethasone 17-propionate (B17P) was also quantifiable in 19 of 34 (55.9%) subjects at week 4 and seven of 12 (58.3%) subjects at week 8. The serum concentrations for MC1080 ranged from 20-75 pg/mL. The clinical significance of this finding is unknown.

Metabolism

Calcipotriene:
Calcipotriene metabolism following systemic uptake is rapid and occurs in the liver. The primary metabolites of calcipotriene are less potent than the parent compound.

Calcipotriene is metabolized to MC1046 (the alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone analogue of calcipotriene), which is metabolized further to MC1080 (a saturated ketone analogue). MC1080 is the major metabolite in plasma. MC1080 is slowly metabolized to calcitroic acid.

Betamethasone dipropionate: Betamethasone dipropionate is metabolized to betamethasone 17-propionate and betamethasone, including the 6beta-hydroxy derivatives of those compounds by hydrolysis. Betamethasone 17-propionate (B17P) is the primary metabolite.

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

When calcipotriene was applied topically to mice for up to 24 months at dosages of 3, 10 and 30 mcg/kg/day (9, 30 and 90 mcg/m2 /day, respectively), no significant changes in tumor incidence were observed when compared to control.

A 104-week oral carcinogenicity study was conducted with calcipotriene in male and female rats at doses of 1, 5 and 15 mcg/kg/day (6, 30, and 90 mcg/m2 /day, respectively). Beginning week 71, the dosage for high-dose animals of both genders was reduced to 10 mcg/kg/day (60 mcg/m2 /day). A treatment-related increase in benign C-cell adenomas was observed in the thyroid of females that received 15 mcg/kg/day. A treatment-related increase in benign pheochromocytomas was observed in the adrenal glands of males that received 15 mcg/kg/day. No other statistically significant differences in tumor incidence were observed when compared to control. The relevance of these findings to patients is unknown.

When betamethasone dipropionate was applied topically to CD-1 mice for up to 24 months at dosages approximating 1.3, 4.2 and 8.5 mcg/kg/day in females, and 1.3, 4.2, and 12.9 mcg/kg/day in males (up to 26 mcg/m2 /day and 39 mcg/m2 /day, in females and males, respectively), no significant changes in tumor incidence were observed when compared to control.

When betamethasone dipropionate was administered via oral gavage to male and female Sprague Dawley rats for up to 24 months at dosages of 20, 60, and 200 mcg/kg/day (120, 360, and 1200 mcg/m2 /day, respectively), no significant changes in tumor incidence were observed when compared to control.

Calcipotriene did not elicit any genotoxic effects in the Ames mutagenicity assay, the mouse lymphoma TK locus assay, the human lymphocyte chromosome aberration test, or the mouse micronucleus test. Betamethasone dipropionate did not elicit any genotoxic effects in the Ames mutagenicity assay, the mouse lymphoma TK locus assay, or in the rat micronucleus test.

Studies in rats with oral doses of up to 54 mcg/kg/day (324 mcg/m2 /day) of calcipotriene indicated no impairment of fertility or general reproductive performance. Studies in male rats at oral doses of up to 200 mcg/kg/day (1200 mcg/m2 /day), and in female rats at oral doses of up to 1000 mcg/kg/day (6000 mcg/m2 /day), of betamethasone dipropionate indicated no impairment of fertility.

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