The following adverse reactions have been reported from worldwide marketing experience with tacrolimus. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Decisions to include these reactions in labeling are typically based on one or more of the following factors: (1) seriousness of the reaction, (2) frequency of the reporting, or (3) strength of causal connection to the drug.
Other reactions include:
Atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac arrest, electrocardiogram T wave abnormal, flushing, myocardial infarction, myocardial ischaemia, pericardial effusion, QT prolongation, Torsade de Pointes, venous thrombosis deep limb, ventricular extrasystoles, ventricular fibrillation, myocardial hypertrophy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.15)] .
Bile duct stenosis, colitis, enterocolitis, gastroenteritis, gastrooesophageal reflux disease, hepatic cytolysis, hepatic necrosis, hepatotoxicity, impaired gastric emptying, liver fatty, mouth ulceration, pancreatitis haemorrhagic, pancreatitis necrotizing, stomach ulcer, venoocclusive liver disease
Agranulocytosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hemolytic anemia, neutropenia, pancytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, pure red cell aplasia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.17)]
Glycosuria, increased amylase including pancreatitis, weight decreased
Feeling hot and cold, feeling jittery, hot flushes, multi-organ failure, primary graft dysfunction
Carpal tunnel syndrome, cerebral infarction, hemiparesis, leukoencephalopathy, mental disorder, mutism, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.8)] , progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4)] , quadriplegia, speech disorder, syncope
Acute respiratory distress syndrome, interstitial lung disease, lung infiltration, respiratory distress, respiratory failure
Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis
Blindness, blindness cortical, hearing loss including deafness, photophobia
Acute renal failure, cystitis haemorrhagic, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, micturition disorder
Since tacrolimus is metabolized mainly by CYP3A enzymes, drugs or substances known to inhibit these enzymes may increase tacrolimus whole blood concentrations. Drugs known to induce CYP3A enzymes may decrease tacrolimus whole blood concentrations [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.13) and Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)] . Dose adjustments may be needed along with frequent monitoring of tacrolimus whole blood trough concentrations when tacrolimus is administered with CYP3A inhibitors or inducers. In addition, patients should be monitored for adverse reactions including changes in renal function and QT prolongation [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.7) and ( 5.14)] .
With a given dose of mycophenolic acid (MPA) products, exposure to MPA is higher with tacrolimus co-administration than with cyclosporine co-administration because cyclosporine interrupts the enterohepatic recirculation of MPA while tacrolimus does not. Clinicians should be aware that there is also a potential for increased MPA exposure after crossover from cyclosporine to tacrolimus in patients concomitantly receiving MPA-containing products.
Grapefruit juice inhibits CYP3A-enzymes resulting in increased tacrolimus whole blood trough concentrations, and patients should avoid eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit juice with tacrolimus [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.5)] .
Most protease inhibitors inhibit CYP3A enzymes and may increase tacrolimus whole blood concentrations. It is recommended to avoid concomitant use of tacrolimus with nelfinavir unless the benefits outweigh the risks [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)] . Whole blood concentrations of tacrolimus are markedly increased when co-administered with telaprevir or with boceprevir [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)] . Monitoring of tacrolimus whole blood concentrations and tacrolimus-associated adverse reactions, and appropriate adjustments in the dosing regimen of tacrolimus are recommended when tacrolimus and protease inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir, telaprevir, boceprevir) are used concomitantly.
All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.