Tacrolimus (Page 4 of 16)

5.13 Myocardial Hypertrophy

Myocardial hypertrophy has been reported in infants, children, and adults, particularly those with high tacrolimus trough concentrations, and is generally manifested by echocardiographically demonstrated concentric increases in left ventricular posterior wall and interventricular septum thickness. This condition appears reversible in most cases following dose reduction or discontinuance of therapy. In patients who develop renal failure or clinical manifestations of ventricular dysfunction while receiving tacrolimus therapy, echocardiographic evaluation should be considered. If myocardial hypertrophy is diagnosed, dosage reduction or discontinuation of tacrolimus capsules should be considered [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.2)].

5.14 Immunizations

Whenever possible, administer the complete complement of vaccines before transplantation and treatment with Tacrolimus.

The use of live vaccines should be avoided during treatment with tacrolimus; examples include (not limited to) the following: intranasal influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, oral polio, BCG, yellow fever, varicella, and TY21a typhoid vaccines.

Inactivated vaccines noted to be safe for administration after transplantation may not be sufficiently immunogenic during treatment with tacrolimus.

5.15 Pure Red Cell Aplasia

Cases of pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) have been reported in patients treated with tacrolimus. A mechanism for tacrolimus-induced PRCA has not been elucidated. All patients reported risk factors for PRCA such as parvovirus B19 infection, underlying disease, or concomitant medications associated with PRCA. If PRCA is diagnosed, discontinuation of tacrolimus capsules should be considered [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.2)].

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following serious and otherwise important adverse drug reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of labeling:

  • Lymphoma and Other Malignancies [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1)]
  • Serious Infections [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2)]
  • New Onset Diabetes After Transplant [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4)]
  • Nephrotoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.5)]
  • Neurotoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6)]
  • Hyperkalemia [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.7)]
  • Hypertension [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.8)]
  • Anaphylactic Reactions with Tacrolimus Injection [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.9)]
  • Myocardial Hypertrophy [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.13)]
  • Pure Red Cell Aplasia [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.15)]

6.1 Clinical Studies Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. In addition, the clinical trials were not designed to establish comparative differences across study arms with regards to the adverse reactions discussed below.

Kidney Transplantation

The incidence of adverse reactions was determined in three randomized kidney transplant trials. One of the trials used azathioprine (AZA) and corticosteroids and two of the trials used mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and corticosteroids concomitantly for maintenance immunosuppression.

Tacrolimus based immunosuppression in conjunction with azathioprine and corticosteroids following kidney transplantation was assessed in a trial where 205 patients received tacrolimus based immunosuppression and 207 patients received cyclosporine-based immunosuppression. The trial population had a mean age of 43 years (mean ± SD was 43 ± 13 years on tacrolimus and 44 ± 12 years on cyclosporine arm), the distribution was 61% male, and the composition was White (58%), African-American (25%), Hispanic (12%), and Other (5%). The 12-month post-transplant information from this trial is presented below.

The most common adverse reactions (≥ 30%) observed in tacrolimus treated kidney transplant patients are: infection, tremor, hypertension, abnormal renal function, constipation, diarrhea, headache, abdominal pain, insomnia, nausea, hypomagnesemia, urinary tract infection, hypophosphatemia, peripheral edema, asthenia, pain, hyperlipidemia, hyperkalemia, and anemia. Based on reported adverse reactions terms related to decreased renal function, nephrotoxicity was reported in approximately 52% of kidney transplantation patients.

Adverse reactions that occurred in ≥15% of kidney transplant patients treated with tacrolimus in conjunction with azathioprine are presented below:

Table 4. Kidney Transplantation: Adverse Reactions Occurring in 15% of Patients Treated with Tacrolimus in Conjunction with Azathioprine (AZA)

Tacrolimus/AZA

(N=205)

Cyclosporine/AZA

(N=207)

Nervous System
Tremor 54% 34%
Headache 44% 38%
Insomnia 32% 30%
Paresthesia 23% 16%
Dizziness 19% 16%
Gastrointestinal
Diarrhea 44% 41%
Nausea 38% 36%
Constipation 35% 43%
Vomiting 29% 23%
Dyspepsia 28% 20%
Cardiovascular
Hypertension 50% 52%
Chest Pain 19% 13%
Urogenital
Creatinine Increased 45% 42%
Urinary Tract Infection 34% 35%
Metabolic and Nutritional
Hypophosphatemia 49% 53%
Hypomagnesemia 34% 17%
Hyperlipemia 31% 38%
Hyperkalemia 31% 32%
Diabetes Mellitus 24% 9%
Hypokalemia 22% 25%
Hyperglycemia 22% 16%
Edema 18% 19%
Hemic and Lymphatic
Anemia 30% 24%
Leukopenia 15% 17%
Miscellaneous
Infection 45% 49%
Peripheral Edema 36% 48%
Asthenia 34% 30%
Abdominal Pain 33% 31%
Pain 32% 30%
Fever 29% 29%
Back Pain 24% 20%
Respiratory System
Dyspnea 22% 18%
Cough Increased 18% 15%
Musculoskeletal
Arthralgia 25% 24%
Skin
Rash 17% 12%
Pruritus 15% 7%

Two trials were conducted for tacrolimus based immunosuppression in conjunction with MMF and corticosteroids. In the non-US trial (Study 1), the incidence of adverse reactions was based on 1195 kidney transplant patients that received tacrolimus (Group C, n = 403), or one of two cyclosporine (CsA) regimens (Group A, n = 384 and Group B, n = 408) in combination with MMF and corticosteroids; all patients, except those in one of the two cyclosporine groups, also received induction with daclizumab. The trial population had a mean age of 46 years (range 17 to 76), the distribution was 65% male, and the composition was 93% Caucasian. The 12-month post-transplant information from this trial is presented below.

Adverse reactions that occurred in ≥10% of kidney transplant patients treated with tacrolimus in conjunction with MMF in Study 1 [Note: This trial was conducted entirely outside of the United States. Such trials often report a lower incidence of adverse reactions in comparison to U.S. trials] are presented below:

Table 5. Kidney Transplantation: Adverse Reactions Occurring in 10% of Patients Treated with Tacrolimus in Conjunction with MMF (Study 1)

Tacrolimus Capsules USP (Group C) (N=403) Cyclosporine (Group A) (N=384) Cyclosporine (Group B) (N=408)
Diarrhea 25% 16% 13%
Urinary tract infection 24% 28% 24%
Anemia 17% 19% 17%
Hypertension 13% 14% 12%
Leucopenia 13% 10% 10%
Edema peripheral 11% 12% 13%
Hyperlipidemia 10% 15% 13%
Key: Group A = CsA/MMF/CS, B = CsA/MMF/CS/Daclizumab, C = Tac/MMF/CS/Daclizumab CsA = Cyclosporine, CS = Corticosteroids, Tac = Tacrolimus, MMF = mycophenolate mofetil

In the U.S. trial (Study 2) with tacrolimus based immunosuppression in conjunction with MMF and corticosteroids, 424 kidney transplant patients received tacrolimus (n = 212) or cyclosporine (n = 212) in combination with MMF1 gram twice daily, basiliximab induction, and corticosteroids. The trial population had a mean age of 48 years (range 17 to 77), the distribution was 63% male, and the composition was White (74%), African-American (20%), Asian (3%), and Other (3%). The 12-month post-transplant information from this trial is presented below.

Adverse reactions that occurred in ≥ 15% of kidney transplant patients treated with tacrolimus in conjunction with MMF in Study 2 are presented below:

Table 6. Kidney Transplantation: Adverse Reactions Occurring in 15% of Patients Treated with Tacrolimus in Conjunction with MMF (Study 2)

Tacrolimus Capsules USP / MMF (N=212) Cyclosporine / MMF (N=212)
Gastrointestinal Disorder
Diarrhea 44% 26%
Nausea 39% 47%
Constipation 36% 41%
Vomiting 26% 25%
Dyspepsia 18% 15%
Injury, Poisoning, and Procedural Complications
Post Procedural Pain 29% 27%
Incision Site Complication 28% 23%
Graft Dysfunction 24% 18%
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorder
Hypomagnesemia 28% 22%
Hypophosphatemia 28% 21%
Hyperkalemia 26% 19%
Hyperglycemia 21% 15%
Hyperlipidemia 18% 25%
Hypokalemia 16% 18%
Nervous System Disorder
Tremor 34% 20%
Headache 24% 25%
Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders
Anemia 30% 28%
Leukopenia 16% 12%
Miscellaneous
Edema Peripheral 35% 46%
Hypertension 32% 35%
Insomnia 30% 21%
Urinary Tract Infection 26% 22%
Blood Creatinine Increased 23% 23%

Less frequently observed adverse reactions in kidney transplantation patients are described under the subsection “Less Frequently Reported Adverse Reactions (> 3% and < 15%) in Liver, Kidney, and Heart Transplant Studies”.

All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.

This site is provided for educational and informational purposes only, in accordance with our Terms of Use, and is not intended as a substitute for the advice of a medical doctor, nurse, nurse practitioner or other qualified health professional.

Privacy Policy | Copyright © 2022. All Rights Reserved.