Tacrolimus pharmacokinetics, following a single IV administration, were determined in 12 patients (7 not on dialysis and 5 on dialysis, serum creatinine of 3.9 ± 1.6 and 12.0 ± 2.4 mg/dL, respectively) prior to their kidney transplant. The pharmacokinetic parameters obtained were similar for both groups. The mean clearance of tacrolimus in patients with renal dysfunction was similar to that in normal volunteers (Table 19) [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Use in Specific Populations (8.6)] .
Tacrolimus pharmacokinetics have been determined in six patients with mild hepatic dysfunction (mean Pugh score: 6.2) following single IV and oral administrations. The mean clearance of tacrolimus in patients with mild hepatic dysfunction was not substantially different from that in normal volunteers (see previous table). Tacrolimus pharmacokinetics were studied in 6 patients with severe hepatic dysfunction (mean Pugh score: > 10). The mean clearance was substantially lower in patients with severe hepatic dysfunction, irrespective of the route of administration [see Dosage and Administration (2.5) and Use in Specific Populations (8.7)] .
The pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus have been studied following single IV and oral administration of tacrolimus to 10 African-American, 12 Latino-American, and 12 Caucasian healthy volunteers. There were no significant pharmacokinetic differences among the three ethnic groups following a 4-hour IV infusion of 0.015 mg/kg. However, after single oral administration of 5 mg, mean (± SD) tacrolimus C max in African-Americans (23.6 ± 12.1 ng/mL) was significantly lower than in Caucasians (40.2 ± 12.6 ng/mL) and Latino-Americans (36.2 ± 15.8 ng/mL) (p < 0.01). Mean AUC 0-inf tended to be lower in African-Americans (203 ± 115 ng•hr/mL) than Caucasians (344 ± 186 ng•hr/mL) and Latino-Americans (274 ± 150 ng•hr/mL). The mean (± SD) absolute oral bioavailability (F) in African-Americans (12 ± 4.5%) and Latino-Americans (14 ± 7.4%) was significantly lower than in Caucasians (19 ± 5.8%, p = 0.011). There was no significant difference in mean terminal T 1/2 among the three ethnic groups (range from approximately 25 to 30 hours). A retrospective comparison of African-American and Caucasian kidney transplant patients indicated that African-American patients required higher tacrolimus doses to attain similar trough concentrations [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].
A formal trial to evaluate the effect of gender on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics has not been conducted, however, there was no difference in dosing by gender in the kidney transplant trial. A retrospective comparison of pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers, and in kidney, liver, and heart transplant patients indicated no gender-based differences.
Frequent monitoring of whole blood concentrations and appropriate dosage adjustments of tacrolimus are recommended when concomitant use of the following drugs with tacrolimus is initiated or discontinued [see Drug Interactions (7)] .
- Telaprevir: In a single-dose study in 9 healthy volunteers, co-administration of tacrolimus (0.5 mg single dose) with telaprevir (750 mg three times daily for 13 days) increased the tacrolimus dose-normalized C max by 9.3-fold and AUC by 70-fold compared to tacrolimus alone [see Drug Interactions (7.2)] .
- Boceprevir: In a single-dose study in 12 subjects, co-administration of tacrolimus (0.5 mg single dose) with boceprevir (800 mg three times daily for 11 days) increased tacrolimus C max by 9.9-fold and AUC by 17-fold compared to tacrolimus alone [see Drug Interactions (7.2)] .
- Nelfinavir: Based on a clinical study of 5 liver transplant recipients, co-administration of tacrolimus with nelfinavir increased blood concentrations of tacrolimus significantly and, as a result, a reduction in the tacrolimus dose by an average of 16-fold was needed to maintain mean trough tacrolimus blood concentrations of 9.7 ng/mL. It is recommended to avoid concomitant use of tacrolimus and nelfinavir unless the benefits outweigh the risks [see Drug Interactions (7.2)] .
- Rifampin: In a study of 6 normal volunteers, a significant decrease in tacrolimus oral bioavailability (14 ± 6% vs. 7 ± 3%) was observed with concomitant rifampin administration (600 mg). In addition, there was a significant increase in tacrolimus clearance (0.036 ± 0.008 L/hr/kg vs. 0.053 ± 0.010 L/hr/kg) with concomitant rifampin administration [see Drug Interactions (7.2)] .
- Magnesium and Aluminum-hydroxide: In a single-dose crossover study in healthy volunteers, co-administration of tacrolimus and magnesium-aluminum-hydroxide resulted in a 21% increase in the mean tacrolimus AUC and a 10% decrease in the mean tacrolimus C max relative to tacrolimus administration alone [see Drug Interactions (7.2)].
- Ketoconazole: In a study of 6 normal volunteers, a significant increase in tacrolimus oral bioavailability (14 ± 5% vs. 30 ± 8%) was observed with concomitant ketoconazole administration (200 mg). The apparent oral clearance of tacrolimus during ketoconazole administration was significantly decreased compared to tacrolimus alone (0.430 ± 0.129 L/hr/kg vs. 0.148 ± 0.043 L/hr/kg). Overall, IV clearance of tacrolimus was not significantly changed by ketoconazole co-administration, although it was highly variable between patients [see Drug Interactions (7.2)] .
- Voriconazole (see complete prescribing information for VFEND ®): Repeat oral dose administration of voriconazole (400 mg every 12 hours for one day, then 200 mg every 12 hours for 6 days) increased tacrolimus (0.1 mg/kg single dose) C max and AUC τ in healthy subjects by an average of 2-fold (90% CI: 1.9, 2.5) and 3-fold (90% CI: 2.7, 3.8), respectively [see Drug Interactions (7.2)] .
- Posaconazole (see complete prescribing information for Noxafil ®): Repeat oral administration of posaconazole (400 mg twice daily for 7 days) increased tacrolimus (0.05 mg/kg single dose) C max and AUC in healthy subjects by an average of 2-fold (90% CI: 2.01, 2.42) and 4.5-fold (90% CI 4.03, 5.19), respectively [see Drug Interactions (7.2)] .
- Caspofungin (see complete prescribing information for CANCIDAS ®): Caspofungin reduced the blood AUC 0-12 of tacrolimus by approximately 20%, peak blood concentration (C max ) by 16%, and 12-hour blood concentration (C 12hr ) by 26% in healthy adult subjects when tacrolimus (2 doses of 0.1 mg/kg 12 hours apart) was administered on the 10th day of CANCIDAS 70 mg daily, as compared to results from a control period in which tacrolimus was administered alone [see Drug Interactions (7.2)] .
Additional pediatric use information is approved for Astellas Pharma US, Inc.’s Prograf (tacrolimus) products. However, due to Astellas Pharma US, Inc.’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that information.
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