Tacrolimus (Page 8 of 17)

6.2 Postmarketing Adverse Reactions

The following adverse reactions have been reported from worldwide marketing experience with tacrolimus. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Decisions to include these reactions in labeling are typically based on one or more of the following factors: (1) seriousness of the reaction, (2) frequency of the reporting, or (3) strength of causal connection to the drug.

Other reactions include:

  • Cardiovascular: Atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac arrest, electrocardiogram T wave abnormal, flushing, myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia, pericardial effusion, QT prolongation, Torsade de Pointes , venous thrombosis deep limb, ventricular extrasystoles, ventricular fibrillation, myocardial hypertrophy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13)]
  • Gastrointestinal: Bile duct stenosis, colitis, enterocolitis, gastroenteritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, hepatic cytolysis, hepatic necrosis, hepatotoxicity, impaired gastric emptying, liver fatty, mouth ulceration, pancreatitis hemorrhagic, pancreatitis necrotizing, stomach ulcer, veno-occlusive liver disease
  • Hemic/Lymphatic: Agranulocytosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hemolytic anemia, neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, pancytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, pure red cell aplasia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.15)]
  • Infections: Cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), sometimes fatal; polyoma virus-associated nephropathy, (PVAN) including graft loss [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
  • Metabolic/Nutritional: Glycosuria, increased amylase including pancreatitis, weight decreased
  • Miscellaneous: Feeling hot and cold, feeling jittery, hot flushes, multi-organ failure, primary graft dysfunction
  • Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: Pain in extremity including Calcineurin-Inhibitor Induced Pain Syndrome (CIPS)
  • Nervous System: Carpal tunnel syndrome, cerebral infarction, hemiparesis, leukoencephalopathy, mental disorder, mutism, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)] , progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] , quadriplegia, speech disorder, syncope
  • Respiratory: Acute respiratory distress syndrome, interstitial lung disease, lung infiltration, respiratory distress, respiratory failure
  • Skin: Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis
  • Special Senses: Blindness, optic neuropathy, blindness cortical, hearing loss including deafness, photophobia
  • Urogenital: Acute renal failure, cystitis hemorrhagic, hemolytic-uremic syndrome

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 Mycophenolic Acid

When tacrolimus capsules are prescribed with a given dose of a mycophenolic acid (MPA) product, exposure to MPA is higher with tacrolimus co-administration than with cyclosporine co-administration with MPA, because cyclosporine interrupts the enterohepatic recirculation of MPA while tacrolimus does not. Monitor for MPA-associated adverse reactions and reduce the dose of concomitantly administered mycophenolic acid products as needed.

7.2 Effects of Other Drugs on Tacrolimus

Table 15 displays the effects of other drugs on tacrolimus.

Table 15: Effects of Other Drugs/Substances on Tacrolimus *
*
Tacrolimus dosage adjustment recommendation based on observed effect of coadministered drug on tacrolimus exposures [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] , literature reports of altered tacrolimus exposures, or the other drug’s known CYP3A inhibitor/inducer status.
High dose or double strength grapefruit juice is a strong CYP3A inhibitor; low dose or single strength grapefruit juice is a moderate CYP3A inhibitor.
Strong CYP3A inhibitor/inducer, based on reported effect on exposures to tacrolimus along with supporting in vitro CYP3A inhibitor/inducer data, or based on drug-drug interaction studies with midazolam (sensitive CYP3A probe substrate).

Drug/Substance Class or Name

Drug Interaction Effect

Recommendations

Grapefruit or grapefruit juice

May increase tacrolimus whole blood trough concentrations and increase the risk of serious adverse reactions (e.g., neurotoxicity, QT prolongation) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6, 5.11, 5.12)] .

Avoid grapefruit or grapefruit juice.

Strong CYP3A Inducers :

Antimycobacterials (e.g., rifampin, rifabutin), anticonvulsants (e.g., phenytoin, carbamazepine and phenobarbital), St John’s Wort

May decrease tacrolimus whole blood trough concentrations and increase the risk of rejection [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)] .

Increase tacrolimus dose and monitor tacrolimus whole blood trough concentrations [see Dosage and Administration (2.2, 2.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .

Strong CYP3A Inhibitors :

Protease inhibitors (e.g., nelfinavir, telaprevir, boceprevir, ritonavir), azole antifungals (e.g., voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole), antibiotics (e.g., clarithromycin, troleandomycin, chloramphenicol), nefazodone, letermovir, Schisandra sphenanthera extracts

May increase tacrolimus blood whole trough concentrations and increase the risk of serious adverse reactions (e.g., neurotoxicity, QT prolongation) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6, 5.11, 5.12)] .

Reduce tacrolimus dose (for voriconazole and posaconazole, give one-third of the original dose) and adjust dose based on tacrolimus whole blood trough concentrations [see Dosage and Administration (2.2, 2.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .

Mild or Moderate CYP3A Inhibitors:

Clotrimazole, antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin, fluconazole), calcium channel blockers (e.g., verapamil, diltiazem, nifedipine, nicardipine), amiodarone, danazol, ethinyl estradiol, cimetidine, lansoprazole and omeprazole

May increase tacrolimus whole blood trough concentrations and increase the risk of serious adverse reactions (e.g., neurotoxicity, QT prolongation) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6, 5.11, 5.12)] .

Monitor tacrolimus whole blood trough concentrations and reduce tacrolimus dose if needed [see Dosage and Administration (2.2, 2.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .

Other drugs, such as:

Magnesium and aluminum hydroxide antacids

Metoclopramide

May increase tacrolimus whole blood trough concentrations and increase the risk of serious adverse reactions (e.g., neurotoxicity, QT prolongation) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6, 5.11, 5.12)] .

Monitor tacrolimus whole blood trough concentrations and reduce tacrolimus dose if needed [see Dosage and Administration (2.2, 2.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .

Mild or Moderate CYP3A Inducers

Methylprednisolone, prednisone

May decrease tacrolimus concentrations.

Monitor tacrolimus whole blood trough concentrations and adjust tacrolimus dose if needed [see Dosage and Administration (2.2, 2.6)] .

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