Tacrolimus (Page 6 of 14)

Heart Transplantation

The incidence of adverse reactions was determined based on two trials in primary orthotopic heart transplantation. In a trial conducted in Europe, 314 patients received a regimen of antibody induction, corticosteroids and azathioprine (AZA) in combination with Tacrolimus (n=157) or cyclosporine (n=157) for 18 months. The trial population had a mean age of 51 years (range 18 to 65), the distribution was 82% male, and the composition was White (96%), Black (3%) and other (1%).

The most common adverse reactions (≥ 15%) observed in tacrolimus-treated heart transplant patients are: abnormal renal function, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, CMV infection, tremor, hyperglycemia, leukopenia, infection, anemia, bronchitis, pericardial effusion, urinary tract infection and hyperlipemia.

Adverse reactions in heart transplant patients in the European trial are presented below:

Table 8. Heart Transplantation: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥ 15% of Patients Treated with Tacrolimus in Conjunction with Azathioprine (AZA)
Tacrolimus / AZA ( n = 157 ) Cyclosporine / AZA ( n = 157 )
Cardiovascular System
Hypertension 62% 69%
Pericardial Effusion 15% 14%
Body as a Whole
CMV Infection 32% 30%
Infection 24% 21%
Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders
Diabetes Mellitus 26% 16%
Hyperglycemia 23% 17%
Hyperlipemia 18% 27%
Hemic and Lymphatic System
Anemia 50% 36%
Leukopenia 48% 39%
Urogenital System
Kidney Function Abnormal 56% 57%
Urinary Tract Infection 16% 12%
Respiratory System
Bronchitis 17% 18%
Nervous System
Tremor 15% 6%

In the European trial, the cyclosporine trough concentrations were above the pre-defined target range (i.e., 100 to 200 ng/mL) at Day 122 and beyond in 32 to 68% of the patients in the cyclosporine treatment arm, whereas the tacrolimus trough concentrations were within the pre-defined target range (i.e., 5 to 15 ng/mL) in 74 to 86% of the patients in the tacrolimus treatment arm.

In a U.S. trial, the incidence of adverse reactions was based on 331 heart transplant patients that received corticosteroids and Tacrolimus in combination with sirolimus (n=109), tacrolimus in combination with MMF (n=107) or cyclosporine modified in combination with MMF (n=115) for 1 year. The trial population had a mean age of 53 years (range 18 to 75), the distribution was 78% male, and the composition was White (83%), Black (13%) and other (4%).

Only selected targeted treatment-emergent adverse reactions were collected in the U.S. heart transplantation trial. Those reactions that were reported at a rate of 15% or greater in patients treated with tacrolimus and MMF include the following: any target adverse reactions (99%), hypertension (89%), hyperglycemia requiring antihyperglycemic therapy (70%), hypertriglyceridemia (65%), anemia (hemoglobin <10.0 g/dL) (65%), fasting blood glucose >140 mg/dL (on two separate occasions) (61%), hypercholesterolemia (57%), hyperlipidemia (34%), WBCs <3000 cells/mcL (34%), serious bacterial infections (30%), magnesium <1.2 mEq/L (24%), platelet count <75,000 cells/mcL (19%), and other opportunistic infections (15%).

Other targeted treatment-emergent adverse reactions in tacrolimus-treated patients occurred at a rate of less than 15%, and include the following: Cushingoid features, impaired wound healing, hyperkalemia, Candida infection, and CMV infection/syndrome.

New Onset Diabetes After Transplant

Kidney Transplant

New Onset Diabetes After Transplant (NODAT) is defined as a composite of fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL, HbA1C ≥ 6%, insulin use ≥ 30 days or oral hypoglycemic use. In a trial in kidney transplant patients (Study 2), NODAT was observed in 75% in the tacrolimus-treated and 61% in the Neoral-treated patients without pre-transplant history of diabetes mellitus (Table 9) [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].

Table 9. Incidence of New Onset Diabetes After Transplant at 1 year in Kidney Transplant Recipients in a Phase 3 Trial (Study 2)
Treatment Group
Parameter Tacrolimus / MMF ( n = 212 ) Neoral / MMF ( n = 212 )
NODAT 112/150 (75%) 93/152 (61%)
Fasting Plasma Glucose ≥126 mg/dL 96/150 (64%) 80/152 (53%)
HbA1 C ≥ 6% 59/150 (39%) 28/152 (18%)
Insulin Use ≥30 days 9/150 (6%) 4/152 (3%)
Oral Hypoglycemic Use 15/150 (10%) 5/152 (3%)

In early trials of tacrolimus, Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus (PTDM) was evaluated with a more limited criteria of “use of insulin for 30 or more consecutive days with < 5 day gap” in patients without a prior history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Data are presented in Tables 10 to 13. PTDM was reported in 20% of tacrolimus /Azathioprine (AZA)-treated kidney transplant patients without pre-transplant history of diabetes mellitus in a Phase 3 trial (Table 10). The median time to onset of PTDM was 68 days. Insulin dependence was reversible in 15% of these PTDM patients at one year and in 50% at 2 years post-transplant. Black and Hispanic kidney transplant patients were at an increased risk of development of PTDM (Table 11).

Table 10. Incidence of Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus and Insulin Use at 2 Years in Kidney Transplant Recipients in a Phase 3 Trial using Azathioprine (AZA)
*
Use of insulin for 30 or more consecutive days, with < 5 day gap, without a prior history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
Status of PTDM * Tacrolimus / AZA CsA / AZA
Patients without pre-transplant history of diabetes mellitus 151 151
New onset PTDM *, 1s t Year 30/151 (20%) 6/151 (4%)
Still insulin-dependent at one year in those without prior history of diabetes 25/151 (17%) 5/151 (3%)
New onset PTDM * post 1 year 1 0
Patients with PTDM * at 2 years 16/151 (11%) 5/151 (3%)
Table 11. Development of Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus by Race or Ethnicity and by Treatment Group During First Year Post Kidney Transplantation in a Phase 3 Trial
*
Use of insulin for 30 or more consecutive days, with < 5 day gap, without a prior history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
Patient Race Patients Who Developed PTDM *
Tacrolimus Cyclosporine
Black 15/41 (37%) 3 (8%)
Hispanic 5/17 (29%) 1 (6%)
Caucasian 10/82 (12%) 1 (1%)
Other 0/11 (0%) 1 (10%)
Total 30/151 (20%) 6 (4%)

Liver Transplant

Insulin-dependent PTDM was reported in 18% and 11% of tacrolimus-treated liver transplant patients and was reversible in 45% and 31% of these patients at 1 year post-transplant, in the U.S. and European randomized trials, respectively, (Table 12). Hyperglycemia was associated with the use of tacrolimus in 47% and 33% of liver transplant recipients in the U.S. and European randomized trials, respectively, and may require treatment [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

Table 12. Incidence of Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus and Insulin Use at 1 Year in Liver Transplant Recipients
*
Use of insulin for 30 or more consecutive days, with < 5 day gap, without a prior history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
Patients without pre-transplant history of diabetes mellitus.
Status of PTDM * US Trial European Trial
Tacrolimus Cyclosporine Tacrolimus Cyclosporine
Patients at risk 239 236 239 249
New Onset PTDM * 42 (18%) 30 (13%) 26 (11%) 12 (5%)
Patients still oninsulin at 1 year 23 (10%) 19 (8%) 18 (8%) 6 (2%)

Heart Transplant

Insulin-dependent PTDM was reported in 13% and 22% of Tacrolimus-treated heart transplant patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or azathioprine (AZA) and was reversible in 30% and 17% of these patients at one year post-transplant, in the U.S. and European randomized trials, respectively (Table 13). Hyperglycemia defined as two fasting plasma glucose levels ≥126 mg/dL was reported with the use of Tacrolimus plus MMF or AZA in 32% and 35% of heart transplant recipients in the U.S. and European randomized trials, respectively, and may require treatment [see (Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

Table 13. Incidence of Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus and Insulin Use at 1 Year in Liver Transplant Recipients
*
Use of insulin for 30 or more consecutive days, without a prior history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
Patients without pre-transplant history of diabetes mellitus.
7-12 months for the U.S.Trial.
Status of PTDM * US Trial European Trial
Tacrolimus / MMF Cyclosporine / MMF Tacrolimus / AZA Cyclosporine / AZA
Patients at risk 75 83 132 138
New Onset PTDM * 10 (13%) 6 (7%) 29 (22%) 5(4%)
Patients still oninsulin at 1 year 7(9%) 1(1%) 24(18%) 4(3%)

Less Frequently Reported Adverse Reactions (>3% and <15%)

The following adverse reactions were reported in either liver and/or kidney transplant recipients who were treated with tacrolimus in clinical trials.

Nervous System [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]

Abnormal dreams, agitation, amnesia, anxiety, confusion, convulsion, crying, depression, elevated mood, emotional lability, encephalopathy, haemorrhagic stroke, hallucinations, hypertonia, incoordination, monoparesis, myoclonus, nerve compression, nervousness, neuralgia, neuropathy, paralysis flaccid, psychomotor skills impaired, psychosis, quadriparesis, somnolence, thinking abnormal, vertigo, writing impaired

Special Senses

Abnormal vision, amblyopia, ear pain, otitis media, tinnitus

Gastrointestinal

Cholangitis, cholestatic jaundice, duodenitis, dysphagia, esophagitis, flatulence, gastritis, gastroesophagitis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, GGT increase, GI disorder, GI perforation, hepatitis, hepatitis granulomatous, ileus, increased appetite, jaundice, liver damage, oesophagitis ulcerative, oral moniliasis, pancreatic pseudocyst, rectal disorder, stomatitis

Cardiovascular

Abnormal ECG, angina pectoris, arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, bradycardia, cardiac fibrillation, cardiopulmonary failure, cardiovascular disorder, congestive heart failure, deep thrombophlebitis, echocardiogram abnormal, electrocardiogram QRS complex abnormal, electrocardiogram ST segment abnormal, heart failure, heart rate decreased, hemorrhage, hypotension, peripheral vascular disorder, phlebitis, postural hypotension, syncope, tachycardia, thrombosis, vasodilatation

Urogenital

Acute kidney failure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)], albuminuria, BK nephropathy, bladder spasm, cystitis, dysuria, hematuria, hydronephrosis, kidney failure, kidney tubular necrosis, nocturia, pyuria, toxic nephropathy, urge incontinence, urinary frequency, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, vaginitis

Metabolic/Nutritional

Acidosis, alkaline phosphatase increased, alkalosis, ALT (SGPT) increased, AST (SGOT) increased, bicarbonate decreased, bilirubinemia, dehydration, GGT increased, gout, healing abnormal, hypercalcemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperuricemia, hypervolemia, hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hypoproteinemia, lactic dehydrogenase increase, weight gain

Endocrine

Cushing’s syndrome

Hemic/Lymphatic

Coagulation disorder, ecchymosis, haematocrit increased, haemoglobin abnormal, hypochromic anemia, leukocytosis, polycythemia, prothrombin decreased, serum iron decreased

Miscellaneous

Abdomen enlarged, abscess, accidental injury, allergic reaction, cellulitis, chills, fall, feeling abnormal, flu syndrome, generalized edema, hernia, mobility decreased, peritonitis, photosensitivity reaction, sepsis, temperature intolerance, ulcer

Musculoskeletal

Arthralgia, cramps, generalized spasm, joint disorder, leg cramps, myalgia, myasthenia, osteoporosis

Respiratory

Asthma, emphysema, hiccups, lung disorder, lung function decreased, pharyngitis, pneumonia, pneumothorax, pulmonary edema, respiratory disorder, rhinitis, sinusitis, voice alteration

Skin

Acne, alopecia, exfoliative dermatitis, fungal dermatitis, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, hirsutism, neoplasm skin benign, skin discoloration, skin disorder, skin ulcer, sweating

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