Tacrolimus (Page 4 of 12)

6.1 Clinical Studies Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. In addition, the clinical trials were not designed to establish comparative differences across study arms with regards to the adverse reactions discussed below.

Kidney Transplantation

The incidence of adverse reactions was determined in three randomized kidney transplant trials. One of the trials used azathioprine (AZA) and corticosteroids and two of the trials used mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and corticosteroids concomitantly for maintenance immunosuppression.

Tacrolimus-based immunosuppression in conjunction with azathioprine and corticosteroids following kidney transplantation was assessed in a trial where 205 patients received tacrolimus based immunosuppression and 207 patients received cyclosporine-based immunosuppression. The trial population had a mean age of 43 years (mean±SD was 43±13 years on tacrolimus and 44±12 years on cyclosporine arm), the distribution was 61% male, and the composition was White (58%),African-American (25%), Hispanic (12%), and Other (5%). The 12-month post-transplant information from this trial is presented below.

The most common adverse reactions (≥30%) observed in tacrolimus-treated kidney transplant patients are: infection, tremor, hypertension, abnormal renal function, constipation, diarrhea, headache, abdominal pain, insomnia, nausea, hypomagnesemia, urinary tract infection, hypophosphatemia, peripheral edema, asthenia, pain, hyperlipidemia, hyperkalemia, and anemia.

Based on reported adverse reaction terms related to decreased renal function, nephrotoxicity was reported in approximately 52% of kidney transplantation patients.

Adverse reactions that occurred in ≥15% of kidney transplant patients treated with tacrolimus in conjunction with azathioprine are presented below:

Table 4. Kidney Transplantation: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥15% of Patients Treated with Tacrolimus in Conjunction with Azathioprine (AZA)

Tacrolimus /AZA (N=205) Cyclosporine/AZA (N=207)
Nervous System
Tremor 54% 34%
Headache 44% 38%
Insomnia 32% 30%
Paresthesia 23% 16%
Dizziness 19% 16%
Gastrointestinal
Diarrhea 44% 41%
Nausea 38% 36%
Constipation 35% 43%
Vomiting 29% 23%
Dyspepsia 28% 20%
Cardiovascular
Hypertension 50% 52%
Chest Pain 19% 13%
Urogenital
Creatinine Increased 45% 42%
Urinary Tract Infection 34% 35%
Metabolic and Nutritional
Hypophosphatemia 49% 53%
Hypomagnesemia 34% 17%
Hyperlipemia 31% 38%
Hyperkalemia 31% 32%
Diabetes Mellitus 24% 9%
Hypokalemia 22% 25%
Hyperglycemia 22% 16%
Edema 18% 19%
Hemic and Lymphatic
Anemia 30% 24%
Leukopenia 15% 17%
Miscellaneous
Infection 45% 49%
Peripheral Edema 36% 48%
Asthenia 34% 30%
Abdominal Pain 33% 31%
Pain 32% 30%
Fever 29% 29%
Back Pain 24% 20%
Respiratory System
Dyspnea 22% 18%
Cough Increased 18% 15%
Musculoskeletal
Arthralgia 25% 24%
Skin
Rash 17% 12%
Pruritus 15% 7%

Two trials were conducted for tacrolimus-based immunosuppression in conjunction with MMF and corticosteroids. In the non-US trial (Study 1), the incidence of adverse reactions was based on 1195 kidney transplant patients that received tacrolimus (Group C, n=403), or one of two cyclosporine (CsA) regimens (Group A, n=384 and Group B, n=408) in combination with MMF and corticosteroids; all patients, except those in one of the two cyclosporine groups, also received induction with daclizumab. The trial population had a mean age of 46 years (range 17 to 76); the distribution was 65% male, and the composition was 93% Caucasian. The 12-month post-transplant information from this trial is presented below.

Adverse reactions that occurred in ≥10% of kidney transplant patients treated with tacrolimus in conjunction with MMF in Study 1 [Note: This trial was conducted entirely outside of the United States. Such trials often report a lower incidence of adverse reactions in comparison to U.S. trials] are presented below:

Table 5. Kidney Transplantation: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥10% of Patients Treated with Tacrolimus in Conjunction with MMF (Study 1)

Tacrolimus (Group C) (N=403) Cyclosporine (Group A) (N=384) Cyclosporine (Group B) (N=408)
Diarrhea 25% 16% 13%
Urinary Tract Infection 24% 28% 24%
Anemia 17% 19% 17%
Hypertension 13% 14% 12%
Leukopenia 13% 10% 10%
Edema Peripheral 11% 12% 13%
Hyperlipidemia 10% 15% 13%
Key: Group A = CsA/MMF/CS, B = CsA/MMF/CS/Daclizumab, C = Tac/MMF/CS/Daclizumab CsA = Cyclosporine, CS = Corticosteroids, Tac = Tacrolimus, MMF = mycophenolate mofetil

In the U.S. trial (Study 2) with tacrolimus-based immunosuppression in conjunction with MMF and corticosteroids, 424 kidney transplant patients received tacrolimus (n=212) or cyclosporine (n=212) in combination with MMF 1 gram twice daily, basiliximab induction, and corticosteroids. The trial population had a mean age of 48 years (range 17 to 77); the distribution was 63% male, and the composition was White (74%), African-American (20%), Asian (3%), and Other (3%). The 12-month post-transplant information from this trial is presented below.

Adverse reactions that occurred in ≥15% of kidney transplant patients treated with tacrolimus in conjunction with MMF in Study 2 are presented below:

Table 6. Kidney Transplantation: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥15% of Patients Treated with Tacrolimus in Conjunction with MMF (Study 2)

Tacrolimus/MMF (N=212) Cyclosporine/ MMF (N=212)
Gastrointestinal Disorders
Diarrhea 44% 26%
Nausea 39% 47%
Constipation 36% 41%
Vomiting 26% 25%
Dyspepsia 18% 15%
Injury, Poisoning, and Procedural Complications
Post-Procedural Pain 29% 27%
Incision Site Complication 28% 23%
Graft Dysfunction 24% 18%
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders
Hypomagnesemia 28% 22%
Hypophosphatemia 28% 21%
Hyperkalemia 26% 19%
Hyperglycemia 21% 15%
Hyperlipidemia 18% 25%
Hypokalemia 16% 18%
Nervous System Disorders
Tremor 34% 20%
Headache 24% 25%
Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders
Anemia 30% 28%
Leukopenia 16% 12%
Miscellaneous
Edema Peripheral 35% 46%
Hypertension 32% 35%
Insomnia 30% 21%
Urinary Tract Infection 26% 22%
Blood Creatinine Increased 23% 23%

Less frequently observed adverse reactions in kidney transplantation patients are described under the subsection “Less Frequently Reported Adverse Reactions (> 3% and < 15%) in Liver, Kidney, and Heart Transplant Studies.”

Liver Transplantation

There were two randomized comparative liver transplant trials. In the U.S. trial, 263 adult and pediatric patients received tacrolimus and steroids and 266 patients received cyclosporine-based immunosuppressive regimen (CsA/AZA). The trial population had a mean age of 44 years (range 0.4 to 70); the distribution was 52% male, and the composition was White (78%), African-American (5%), Asian (2%), Hispanic (13%), and Other (2%). In the European trial, 270 patients received tacrolimus and steroids and 275 patients received CsA/AZA. The trial population had a mean age of 46 years (range 15 to 68); the distribution was 59% male, and the composition was White (95.4%), Black (1%), Asian (2%), and Other (2%).

The proportion of patients reporting more than one adverse event was >99% in both the tacrolimus group and the CsA/AZA group. Precautions must be taken when comparing the incidence of adverse reactions in the U.S. trial to that in the European trial. The 12-month post-transplant information from the U.S. trial and from the European trial is presented below. The two trials also included different patient populations and patients were treated with immunosuppressive regimens of differing intensities. Adverse reactions reported in ≥15% in tacrolimus patients (combined trial results) are presented below for the two controlled trials in liver transplantation.

The most common adverse reactions (≥38%) observed in tacrolimus-treated liver transplant patients are: tremor, headache, diarrhea, hypertension, nausea, abnormal renal function, abdominal pain, insomnia, paresthesia, anemia, pain, fever, asthenia, hyperkalemia, hypomagnesemia, and hyperglycemia. These all occur with oral and IV administration of tacrolimus and some may respond to a reduction in dosing (e.g., tremor, headache, paresthesia, hypertension). Diarrhea was sometimes associated with other gastrointestinal complaints such as nausea and vomiting.Based on reported adverse reaction terms related to decreased renal function, nephrotoxicity was reported in approximately 40% and 36% of liver transplantation patients receiving tacrolimus in the U.S. and European randomized trials.

Table 7. Liver Transplantation: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥15% of Patients Treated with Tacrolimus

U.S. TRIAL EUROPEAN TRIAL
Tacrolimus (N=250) Cyclosporine/ AZA(N=250) Tacrolimus (N=264) Cyclosporine/ AZA (N = 265)
Nervous System
Headache 64% 60% 37% 26%
Insomnia 64% 68% 32% 23%
Tremor 56% 46% 48% 32%
Paresthesia 40% 30% 17% 17%
Gastrointestinal
Diarrhea 72% 47% 37% 27%
Nausea 46% 37% 32% 27%
LFT Abnormal 36% 30% 6% 5%
Anorexia 34% 24% 7% 5%
Vomiting 27% 15% 14% 11%
Constipation 24% 27% 23% 21%
Cardiovascular
Hypertension 47% 56% 38% 43%
Urogenital
Kidney Function Abnormal 40% 27% 36% 23%
Creatinine Increased 39% 25% 24% 19%
BUN Increased 30% 22% 12% 9%
Oliguria 18% 15% 19% 12%
Urinary Tract Infection 16% 18% 21% 19%
Metabolic and Nutritional
Hypomagnesemia 48% 45% 16% 9%
Hyperglycemia 47% 38% 33% 22%
Hyperkalemia 45% 26% 13% 9%
Hypokalemia 29% 34% 13% 16%
Hemic and Lymphatic
Anemia 47% 38% 5% 1%
Leukocytosis 32% 26% 8% 8%
Thrombocytopenia 24% 20% 14% 19%
Miscellaneous
Pain 63% 57% 24% 22%
Abdominal Pain 59% 54% 29% 22%
Asthenia 52% 48% 11% 7%
Fever 48% 56% 19% 22%
Back Pain 30% 29% 17% 17%
Ascites 27% 22% 7% 8%
Peripheral Edema 26% 26% 12% 14%
Respiratory System
Pleural Effusion 30% 32% 36% 35%
Dyspnea 29% 23% 5% 4%
Atelectasis 28% 30% 5% 4%
Skin and Appendages
Pruritus 36% 20% 15% 7%
Rash 24% 19% 10% 4%

Less frequently observed adverse reactions in liver transplantation patients are described under the subsection ‘’Less Frequently Reported Adverse Reactions (>3% and < 15%) in Liver, Kidney, and Heart Transplant Studies. “

Heart Transplantation

The incidence of adverse reactions was determined based on two trials in primary orthotopic heart transplantation. In a trial conducted in Europe, 314 patients received a regimen of antibody induction, corticosteroids, and azathioprine (AZA) in combination with tacrolimus (n=157) or cyclosporine (n=157) for 18 months. The trial population had a mean age of 51 years (range 18 to 65); the distribution was 82% male, and the composition was White (96%), Black (3%), and Other (1%).

The most common adverse reactions (≥15%) observed in tacrolimus-treated heart transplant patients are: abnormal renal function, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, CMV infection, tremor, hyperglycemia, leukopenia, infection, anemia, bronchitis, pericardial effusion, urinary tract infection, and hyperlipemia. Based on reported adverse reaction terms related to decreased renal function, nephrotoxicity was reported in approximately 59% of heart transplantation patients in the European trial.

Adverse reactions in heart transplant patients in the European trial are presented below:

Table 9. Heart Transplantation: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥15% of Patients Treated with Tacrolimus in Conjunction with Azathioprine (AZA)

Tacrolimus/AZA (N=157) Cyclosporine/AZA (N=157)
Cardiovascular System
Hypertension 62% 69%
Pericardial Effusion 15% 14%
Body as a Whole
CMV Infection 32% 30%
Infection 24% 21%
Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders
Diabetes Mellitus 26% 16%
Hyperglycemia 23% 17%
Hyperlipemia 18% 27%
Hemic and Lymphatic System
Anemia 50% 36%
Leukopenia 48% 39%
Urogenital System
Kidney Function Abnormal 56% 57%
Urinary Tract Infection 16% 12%
Respiratory System
Bronchitis 17% 18%
Nervous System
Tremor 15% 6%

In the European trial, the cyclosporine trough concentrations were above the pre-defined target range (i.e., 100 to 200 ng/mL) at Day 122 and beyond in 32% to 68% of the patients in the cyclosporine treatment arm, whereas the tacrolimus trough concentrations were within the pre-defined target range (i.e., 5 to 15 ng/mL) in 74% to 86% of the patients in the tacrolimus treatment arm.

In a U.S. trial, the incidence of adverse reactions was based on 331 heart transplant patients that received corticosteroids and tacrolimus in combination with sirolimus (n=109), tacrolimus in combination with MMF (n=107) or cyclosporine modified in combination with MMF (n=115) for 1 year. The trial population had a mean age of 53 years (range 18 to 75); the distribution was 78% male, and the composition was White (83%), African-American (13%) and Other (4%).

Only selected targeted treatment-emergent adverse reactions were collected in the U.S. heart transplantation trial. Those reactions that were reported at a rate of 15% or greater in patients treated with tacrolimus and MMF include the following: any target adverse reactions (99%), hypertension (89%), hyperglycemia requiring antihyperglycemic therapy (70%), hypertriglyceridemia (65%), anemia (hemoglobin <10.0 g/dL) (65%), fasting blood glucose >140 mg/dL (on two separate occasions) (61%), hypercholesterolemia (57%), hyperlipidemia (34%), WBCs <3,000 cells/mcL (34%), serious bacterial infections (30%), magnesium <1.2 mEq/L (24%), platelet count <75,000 cells/mcL (19%), and other opportunistic infections (15%).

Other targeted treatment-emergent adverse reactions in tacrolimus-treated patients occurred at a rate of less than 15%, and include the following: Cushingoid features, impaired wound healing, hyperkalemia, Candida infection, and CMV infection/syndrome. Other less frequently observed adverse reactions in heart transplantation patients are described under the subsection ‘’Less Frequently Reported Adverse Reactions (>3% and < 15%) in Liver, Kidney and Heart Transplant Studies,’’

New Onset Diabetes After Transplant

Kidney Transplantation

New Onset Diabetes After Transplant (NODAT) is defined as a composite of fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL, HbA1C ≥6%, insulin use ≥30 days, or oral hypoglycemic use. In a trial in kidney transplant patients (Study 2), NODAT was observed in 75% in the tacrolimus-treated and 61% in the NEORAL-treated patients without pre-transplant history of diabetes mellitus (Table 10) [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].

Table 10. Incidence of New Onset Diabetes After Transplant at 1 year in Kidney Transplant Recipients in a Phase 3 Trial (Study 2)

Parameter Treatment Group
Tacrolimus/MMF (N = 212) NEORAL/MMF (N = 212)
NODAT 112/150 (75%) 93/152 (61%)
Fasting Plasma Glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL 96/150 (64%) 80/152 (53%)
HbA1C ≥ 6% 59/150 (39%) 28/152 (18%)
Insulin Use ≥30 days 9/150 (6%) 4/152 (3%)
Oral Hypoglycemic Use 15/150 (10%) 5/152 (3%)

In early trials of tacrolimus, Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus (PTDM) was evaluated with a more limited criterion of “use of insulin for 30 or more consecutive days with <5-day gap” in patients without a prior history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Data are presented in Tables 11 to 14. PTDM was reported in 20% of Tacrolimus/Azathioprine (AZA)-treated kidney transplant patients without pre-transplant history of diabetes mellitus in a Phase 3 trial (Table 11). The median time to onset of PTDM was 68 days. Insulin dependence was reversible in 15% of these PTDM patients at one year and in 50% at 2 years post-transplant. African-American and Hispanic kidney transplant patients were at an increased risk of development of PTDM (Table 12).

Table 11. Incidence of Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus and Insulin Use at 2 Years in Kidney Transplant Recipients in a Phase 3 Trial using Azathioprine (AZA)

Status of PTDM1 Tacrolimus/AZA CsA/AZA
Patients without pre-transplant history of diabetes mellitus 151 151
New onset PTDM1 , 1st Year 30/151 (20%) 6/151 (4%)
Still insulin-dependent at one year in those without prior history of diabetes 25/151 (17%) 5/151 (3%)
New onset PTDM 1 post 1 year 1 0
Patients with PTDM 1 at 2 years 16/151 (11%) 5/151 (3%)

1. Use of insulin for 30 or more consecutive days, with <5-day gap, without a prior history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

Table 12. Development of Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus by Race or Ethnicity and by Treatment Group During First Year Post Kidney Transplantation in a Phase 3 Trial

Patient Race Patients Who Developed PTDM 1
Tacrolimus Cyclosporine
African-American 15/41 (37%) 3 (8%)
Hispanic 5/17 (29%) 1 (6%)
Caucasian 10/82 (12%) 1 (1%)
Other 0/11 (0%) 1 (10%)
Total 30/151 (20%) 6 (4%)

1. Use of insulin for 30 or more consecutive days, with < 5-day gap, without a prior history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

Liver Transplantation

Insulin-dependent PTDM was reported in 18% and 11% of tacrolimus-treated liver transplant patients and was reversible in 45% and 31% of these patients at 1 year post-transplant, in the U.S. and European randomized trials, respectively (Table 13). Hyperglycemia was associated with the use of tacrolimus in 47% and 33% of liver transplant recipients in the U.S. and European randomized trials, respectively, and may require treatment [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

Table 13. Incidence of Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus and Insulin Use at 1 Year in Liver Transplant Recipients

Status of PTDM 1 US Trial European Trial
Tacrolimus Cyclosporine Tacrolimus Cyclosporine
Patients at risk2 239 236 239 249
New Onset PTDM 1 42 (18%) 30 (13%) 26 (11%) 12 (5%)
Patients still on insulin at 1 year 23 (10%) 19 (8%) 18 (8%) 6 (2%)

1. Use of insulin for 30 or more consecutive days, with <5-day gap, without a prior history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

2.Patients without pre-transplant history of diabetes mellitus.

Heart Transplantation

Insulin-dependent PTDM was reported in 13% and 22% of tacrolimus-treated heart transplant patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or azathioprine (AZA) and was reversible in 30% and 17% of these patients at one year post-transplant, in the U.S. and European randomized trials, respectively (Table 14). Hyperglycemia, defined as two fasting plasma glucose levels ≥126 mg/dL, was reported with the use of tacrolimus plus MMF or AZA in 32% and 35% of heart transplant recipients in the U.S. and European randomized trials, respectively, and may require treatment [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

Table 14. Incidence of Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus and Insulin Use at 1 Year in Heart Transplant Recipients

Status of PTDM 1 US Trial European Trial
Tacrolimus /MMF Cyclosporine/MMF Tacrolimus /AZA Cyclosporine/AZA
Patients at risk2 75 83 132 138
New Onset PTDM 1 10 (13%) 6 (7%) 29 (22%) 5 (4%)
Patients still on insulin at 1 year3 7 (9%) 1 (1%) 24 (18%) 4 (3%)

1. Use of insulin for 30 or more consecutive days without a prior history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

2. Patients without pre-transplant history of diabetes mellitus.

3. 7 to 12 months for the U.S. trial.

Less Frequently Reported Adverse Reactions (>3% and <15%) in Liver, Kidney, and Heart Transplant Studies

The following adverse reactions were reported in either liver, kidney, and/or heart transplant recipients who were treated with tacrolimus in clinical trials.

  • Nervous System[see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]: Abnormal dreams, agitation, amnesia, anxiety, confusion, convulsion, crying, depression, elevated mood, emotional lability, encephalopathy, hemorrhagic stroke, hallucinations, hypertonia, incoordination, monoparesis, myoclonus, nerve compression, nervousness, neuralgia, neuropathy, paralysis flaccid, psychomotor skills impaired, psychosis, quadriparesis, somnolence, thinking abnormal, vertigo, writing impaired
  • Special Senses: Abnormal vision, amblyopia, ear pain, otitis media, tinnitus
  • Gastrointestinal: Cholangitis, cholestatic jaundice, duodenitis, dysphagia, esophagitis, flatulence, gastritis, gastroesophagitis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, GGT increase, GI disorder, GI perforation, hepatitis, hepatitis granulomatous, ileus, increased appetite, jaundice, liver damage, esophagitis ulcerative, oral moniliasis, pancreatic pseudocyst, stomatitis
  • Cardiovascular: Abnormal ECG, angina pectoris, arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, bradycardia, cardiac fibrillation, cardiopulmonary failure, congestive heart failure, deep thrombophlebitis, echocardiogram abnormal, electrocardiogram QRS complex abnormal, electrocardiogram ST segment abnormal, heart failure, heart rate decreased, hemorrhage, hypotension, phlebitis, postural hypotension, syncope, tachycardia, thrombosis, vasodilatation
  • Urogenital: Acute kidney failure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] , albuminuria, BK nephropathy, bladder spasm, cystitis, dysuria, hematuria, hydronephrosis, kidney failure, kidney tubular necrosis, nocturia, pyuria, toxic nephropathy, urge incontinence, urinary frequency, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, vaginitis
  • Metabolic/Nutritional: Acidosis, alkaline phosphatase increased, alkalosis, ALT (SGPT) increased, AST (SGOT) increased, bicarbonate decreased, bilirubinemia, dehydration, GGT increased, gout, healing abnormal, hypercalcemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperuricemia, hypervolemia, hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hypoproteinemia, lactic dehydrogenase increased, weight gain
  • Endocrine: Cushing’s syndrome
  • Hemic/Lymphatic: Coagulation disorder, ecchymosis, hematocrit increased, hypochromic anemia, leukocytosis, polycythemia, prothrombin decreased, serum iron decreased
  • Miscellaneous: Abdomen enlarged, abscess, accidental injury, allergic reaction, cellulitis, chills, fall, flu syndrome, generalized edema, hernia, mobility decreased, peritonitis, photosensitivity reaction, sepsis, temperature intolerance, ulcer
  • Musculoskeletal: Arthralgia, cramps, generalized spasm, leg cramps, myalgia, myasthenia, osteoporosis
  • Respiratory: Asthma, emphysema, hiccups, lung function decreased, pharyngitis, pneumonia, pneumothorax, pulmonary edema, rhinitis, sinusitis, voice alteration
  • Skin: Acne, alopecia, exfoliative dermatitis, fungal dermatitis, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, hirsutism, neoplasm skin benign, skin discoloration,skin ulcer, sweating

Additional pediatric use information is approved for Astellas Pharma US, Inc.’s Prograf (tacrolimus) products. However, due to Astellas Pharma US, Inc.’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that information.

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