Tacrolimus (Page 5 of 12)

6.1 Clinical Studies Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. In addition, the clinical trials were not designed to establish comparative differences across study arms with regards to the adverse reactions discussed below.

Kidney Transplant

The incidence of adverse reactions was determined in three randomized kidney transplant trials. One of the trials used azathioprine (AZA) and corticosteroids and two of the trials used mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and corticosteroids concomitantly for maintenance immunosuppression.

Tacrolimus-based immunosuppression in conjunction with azathioprine and corticosteroids following kidney transplantation was assessed in trial where 205 patients received tacrolimus based immunosuppression and 207 patients received cyclosporine based immunosuppression. The trial population had a mean age of 43 years (mean±sd was 43±13 years on tacrolimus and 44±12 years on cyclosporine arm), the distribution was 61% male, and the composition was White (58%), Black (25%), Hispanic (12%) and Other (5%). The 12 month post-transplant information from this trial is presented below.

The most common adverse reactions ( ≥ 30%) observed in tacrolimus-treated kidney transplant patients are: infection, tremor, hypertension, abnormal renal function, constipation, diarrhea, headache, abdominal pain, insomnia, nausea, hypomagnesemia, urinary tract infection, hypophosphatemia, peripheral edema, asthenia, pain, hyperlipidemia, hyperkalemia and anemia.

Adverse reactions that occurred in ≥ 15% of kidney transplant patients treated with tacrolimus in conjunction with azathioprine are presented below:

Table 4. Kidney Transplantation: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥ 15% of Patients Treated with Tacrolimus in Conjunction with Azathioprine (AZA)

Tacrolimus /AZA

(N=205)

Cyclosporine/AZA (N=207)

Nervous System

Tremor

54%

34%

Headache

44%

38%

Insomnia

32%

30%

Paresthesia

23%

16%

Dizziness

19%

16%

Gastrointestinal

Diarrhea

44%

41%

Nausea

38%

36%

Constipation

35%

43%

Vomiting

29%

23%

Dyspepsia

28%

20%

Cardiovascular

Hypertension

50%

52%

Chest Pain

19%

13%

Urogenital

Creatinine Increased

45%

42%

Urinary Tract Infection

34%

35%

Metabolic and Nutritional

Hypophosphatemia

49%

53%

Hypomagnesemia

34%

17%

Hyperlipemia

31%

38%

Hyperkalemia

31%

32%

Diabetes Mellitus

24%

9%

Hypokalemia

22%

25%

Hyperglycemia

22%

16%

Edema

18%

19%

Hemic and Lymphatic

Anemia

30%

24%

Leukopenia

15%

17%

Miscellaneous

Infection

45%

49%

Peripheral Edema

36%

48%

Asthenia

34%

30%

Abdominal Pain

33%

31%

Pain

32%

30%

Fever

29%

29%

Back Pain

24%

20%

Respiratory System

Dyspnea

22%

18%

Cough Increased

18%

15%

Musculoskeletal

Arthralgia

25%

24%

Skin

Rash

17%

12%

Pruritus

15%

7%

Two trials were conducted for tacrolimus -based immunosuppression in conjunction with MMF and corticosteroids. In the non-US trial (Study 1), the incidence of adverse reactions was based on 1195 kidney transplant patients that received tacrolimus (Group C, n=403), or one of two cyclosporine (CsA) regimens (Group A, n=384 and Group B, n=408) in combination with MMF and corticosteroids; all patients, except those in one of the two cyclosporine groups, also received induction with daclizumab. The trial population had a mean age of 46 years (range 17 to 76), the distribution was 65% male, and the composition was 93% Caucasian. The 12 month post-transplant information from this trial is presented below.

Adverse reactions that occurred in ≥ 10% of kidney transplant patients treated with tacrolimus in conjunction with MMF in Study 1 [Note: This trial was conducted entirely outside of the United States. Such trials often report a lower incidence of adverse reactions in comparison to U.S. trials] are presented below:

Table 5. Kidney Transplantation: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥ 10% of Patients Treated with Tacrolimus in Conjunction with MMF (Study 1)

Tacrolimus (Group C) (N=403)

Cyclosporine (Group A) (N=384)

Cyclosporine (Group B) (N=408)

Diarrhea

25%

16%

13%

Urinary Tract Infection

24%

28%

24%

Anemia

17%

19%

17%

Hypertension

13%

14%

12%

Leukopenia

13%

10%

10%

Edema Peripheral

11%

12%

13%

Hyperlipidemia

10%

15%

13%

Key: Group A = CsA/MMF/CS, B = CsA/MMF/CS/Daclizumab, C= Tac/MMF/CS/Daclizumab CsA= Cyclosporine, CS = Corticosteroids, Tac = Tacrolimus, MMF = mycophenolate mofetil

In the U.S. trial (Study 2) with tacrolimus-based immunosuppression in conjunction with MMF and corticosteroids, 424 kidney transplant patients received tacrolimus (n=212) or cyclosporine (n=212) in combination with MMF 1 gram twice daily, basiliximab induction, and corticosteroids. The trial population had a mean age of 48 years (range 17 to 77), the distribution was 63% male, and the composition was White (74%), Black (20%), Asian (3%) and other (3%). The 12 month post-transplant information from this trial is presented below.

Adverse reactions that occurred in ≥15% of kidney transplant patients treated with tacrolimus in conjunction with MMF in Study 2 are presented below:

Table 6. Kidney Transplantation: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥ 15% of Patients Treated with Tacrolimus in Conjunction with MMF (Study 2)

Tacrolimus /MMF (N=212)

Cyclosporine/MMF (N=212)

Gastrointestinal Disorders

Diarrhea

44%

26%

Nausea

39%

47%

Constipation

36%

41%

Vomiting

26%

25%

Dyspepsia

18%

15%

Injury, Poisoning, and Procedural Complications

Post-Procedural Pain

29%

27%

Incision Site Complication

28%

23%

Graft Dysfunction

24%

18%

Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders

Hypomagnesemia

28%

22%

Hypophosphatemia

28%

21%

Hyperkalemia

26%

19%

Hyperglycemia

21%

15%

Hyperlipidemia

18%

25%

Hypokalemia

16%

18%

Nervous System Disorders

Tremor

34%

20%

Headache

24%

25%

Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders

Anemia

30%

28%

Leukopenia

16%

12%

Miscellaneous

Edema Peripheral

35%

46%

Hypertension

32%

35%

Insomnia

30%

21%

Urinary Tract Infection

26%

22%

Blood Creatinine Increased

23%

23%

Less frequently observed adverse reactions in both liver transplantation and kidney transplantation patients are described under the subsection Less Frequently Reported Adverse Reactions.

Liver Transplantation

There were two randomized comparative liver transplant trials. In the U.S. trial, 263 adult and pediatric patients received tacrolimus and steroids and 266 patients received cyclosporine-based immunosuppressive regimen (CsA/AZA). The trial population had a mean age of 44 years (range 0.4 to 70), the distribution was 52% male, and the composition was White (78%), Black (5%), Asian (2%), Hispanic (13%) and Other (2%). In the European trial, 270 patients received tacrolimus and steroids and 275 patients received CsA/AZA. The trial population had a mean age of 46 years (range 15 to 68), the distribution was 59% male, and the composition was White (95.4%), Black (1%), Asian (2%) and Other (2%).

The proportion of patients reporting more than one adverse event was > 99% in both the tacrolimus group and the CsA/AZA group. Precautions must be taken when comparing the incidence of adverse reactions in the U.S. trial to that in the European trial. The 12-month post-transplant information from the U.S. trial and from the European trial is presented below. The two trials also included different patient populations and patients were treated with immunosuppressive regimens of differing intensities. Adverse reactions reported in ≥15% in tacrolimus patients (combined trial results) are presented below for the two controlled trials in liver transplantation.

The most common adverse reactions (≥ 40%) observed in tacrolimus-treated liver transplant patients are: tremor, headache, diarrhea, hypertension, nausea, abnormal renal function, abdominal pain, insomnia, paresthesia, anemia, pain, fever, asthenia, hyperkalemia, hypomagnesemia, and hyperglycemia. These all occur with oral and IV administration of tacrolimus and some may respond to a reduction in dosing (e.g., tremor, headache, paresthesia, hypertension). Diarrhea was sometimes associated with other gastrointestinal complaints such as nausea and vomiting.

Table 7. Liver Transplantation: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥ 15% of Patients Treated with Tacrolimus

U.S. TRIAL

EUROPEAN TRIAL

Tacrolimus (N=250)

Cyclosporine/AZA (N=250)

Tacrolimus (N=264)

Cyclosporine/AZA (N=265)

Nervous System

Headache

64%

60%

37%

26%

Insomnia

64%

68%

32%

23%

Tremor

56%

46%

48%

32%

Paresthesia

40%

30%

17%

17%

Gastrointestinal

Diarrhea

72%

47%

37%

27%

Nausea

46%

37%

32%

27%

LFT Abnormal

36%

30%

6%

5%

Anorexia

34%

24%

7%

5%

Vomiting

27%

15%

14%

11%

Constipation

24%

27%

23%

21%

Cardiovascular

Hypertension

47%

56%

38%

43%

Urogenital

Kidney Function Abnormal

40%

27%

36%

23%

Creatinine Increased

39%

25%

24%

19%

BUN Increased

30%

22%

12%

9%

Oliguria

18%

15%

19%

12%

Urinary Tract Infection

16%

18%

21%

19%

Metabolic and Nutritional

Hypomagnesemia

48%

45%

16%

9%

Hyperglycemia

47%

38%

33%

22%

Hyperkalemia

45%

26%

13%

9%

Hypokalemia

29%

34%

13%

16%

Hemic and Lymphatic

Anemia

47%

38%

5%

1%

Leukocytosis

32%

26%

8%

8%

Thrombocytopenia

24%

20%

14%

19%

Miscellaneous

Pain

63%

57%

24%

22%

Abdominal Pain

59%

54%

29%

22%

Asthenia

52%

48%

11%

7%

Fever

48%

56%

19%

22%

Back Pain

30%

29%

17%

17%

Ascites

27%

22%

7%

8%

Peripheral Edema

26%

26%

12%

14%

Respiratory System

Pleural Effusion

30%

32%

36%

35%

Dyspnea

29%

23%

5%

4%

Atelectasis

28%

30%

5%

4%

Skin and Appendages

Pruritus

36%

20%

15%

7%

Rash

24%

19%

10%

4%

Less frequently observed adverse reactions in both liver transplantation and kidney transplantation patients are described under the subsection Less Frequently Reported Adverse Reactions.

Heart Transplantation

The incidence of adverse reactions was determined based on two trials in primary orthotopic heart transplantation. In a trial conducted in Europe, 314 patients received a regimen of antibody induction, corticosteroids and azathioprine (AZA) in combination with tacrolimus (n=157) or cyclosporine (n=157) for 18 months. The trial population had a mean age of 51 years (range 18 to 65), the distribution was 82% male, and the composition was White (96%), Black (3%) and other (1%).

The most common adverse reactions (≥ 15%) observed in tacrolimus-treated heart transplant patients are: abnormal renal function, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, CMV infection, tremor, hyperglycemia, leukopenia, infection, anemia, bronchitis, pericardial effusion, urinary tract infection and hyperlipemia.

Adverse reactions in heart transplant patients in the European trial are presented below:

Table 8. Heart Transplantation: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥ 15% of Patients Treated with Tacrolimus in Conjunction with Azathioprine (AZA)

Tacrolimus/AZA

Cyclosporine/AZA

(n=157)

(n=157)

Cardiovascular System

Hypertension

62%

69%

Pericardial Effusion

15%

14%

Body as a Whole

CMV Infection

32%

30%

Infection

24%

21%

Metabolism and Nutritional Disorders

Diabetes Mellitus

26%

16%

Hyperglycemia

23%

17%

Hyperlipemia

18%

27%

Hemic and Lymphatic System

Anemia

50%

36%

Leukopenia

48%

39%

Urogenital System

Kidney Function Abnormal

56%

57%

Urinary Tract Infection

16%

12%

Respiratory System

Bronchitis

17%

18%

Nervous System

Tremor

15%

6%

In the European trial, the cyclosporine trough concentrations were above the pre-defined target range (i.e. 100 to 200 ng/mL) at Day 122 and beyond in 32 to 68% of the patients in the cyclosporine treatment arm, whereas the tacrolimus trough concentrations were within the pre-defined target range (i.e., 5 to 15 ng/mL) in74 to 86% of the patients in the tacrolimus treatment arm.

In the U.S. trial, the incidence of adverse reactions was based on 331 heart transplant patients that received corticosteroids and tacrolimus in combination with sirolimus (n=109), tacrolimus in combination with MMF (n=107) or cyclosporine modified in combination with MMF (n=115) for 1 year. The trial population had a mean age of 53 years (range 18 to 75), the distribution was 78% male, and the composition was White (83%), Black (13%) and other (4%).

Only selected targeted treatment-emergent adverse reactions were collected in the U.S. heart transplantation trial. Those reactions that were reported at a rate of 15% or greater in patients treated with tacrolimus and MMF include the following: any target adverse reactions (99%), hypertension (89%), hyperglycemia requiring antihyperglycemic therapy (70%), hypertriglyceridemia (65%), anemia (hemoglobin < 10 g/dL) (65%), fasting blood glucose > 140 mg/dL (on two separate occasions) (61%), hypercholesterolemia (57%), hyperlipidemia (34%), WBCs <3000 cells/mcL (34%), serious bacterial infections (30%), magnesium <1.2 mEq/L (24%), platelet count <75,000 cells/mcL (19%), and other opportunistic infections (15%).

Other targeted treatment-emergent adverse reactions in tacrolimus-treated patients occurred at a rate of less than 15%, and include the following: Cushingoid features, impaired wound healing, hyperkalemia, Candida infection, and CMV infection/syndrome.

New Onset Diabetes After Transplant

Kidney Transplant

New Onset Diabetes After Transplant (NODAT) is defined as a composite of fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL, HbA 1C ≥ 6%, insulin use ≥ 30 days or oral hypoglycemic use. In a trial in kidney transplant patients (Study 2), NODAT was observed in 75% in the tacrolimus-treated and 61% in the Neoral-treated patients without pre-transplant history of diabetes mellitus Table 9 [see Clinical Studies ( 14.1)].

Table 9. Incidence of New Onset Diabetes After Transplant at 1 Year in Kidney Transplant Recipients in a Phase 3 Trial (Study 2)

Parameter

Treatment Group

Tacrolimus/MMF

(n = 212)

Neoral/MMF

(n = 212)

NODAT

112/150 (75%)

93/152 (61%)

Fasting Plasma Glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL

96/150 (64%)

80/152 (53%)

HbA 1C ≥ 6%

59/150 (39%)

28/152 (18%)

Insulin Use ≥ 30 days

9/150 (6%)

4/152 (3%)

Oral Hypoglycemic Use

15/150 (10%)

5/152 (3%)

In early trials of tacrolimus, Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus (PTDM) was evaluated with a more limited criteria of “use of insulin for 30 or more consecutive days with < 5 day gap” in patients without a prior history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Data are presented in Tables 10 to 13. PTDM was reported in 20% of tacrolimus/Azathioprine (AZA)-treated kidney transplant patients without pre-transplant history of diabetes mellitus in a Phase 3 trial (Table 10) The median time to onset of PTDM was 68 days. Insulin dependence was reversible in 15% of these PTDM patients at one year and in 50% at 2 years post-transplant. Black and Hispanic kidney transplant patients were at an increased risk of development of PTDM (Table 11)

Table 10. Incidence of Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus and Insulin Use at 2 Years in Kidney Transplant Recipients in a Phase 3 Trial using Azathioprine (AZA)

Status of PTDM a

Tacrolimus/AZA

CsA/AZA

Patients without pre-transplant history of diabetes mellitus

151

151

New onset PTDM a , 1 st Year

30/151 (20%)

6/151 (4%)

Still insulin-dependent at one year in those without prior history of diabetes

25/151 (17%)

5/151 (3%)

New onset PTDM a post 1 year

1

0

Patients with PTDM a at 2 years

16/151 (11%)

5/151 (3%)

a) Use of insulin for 30 or more consecutive days, with < 5 day gap, without a prior history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

Table 11. Development of Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus by Race or Ethnicity and by Treatment Group During First Year Post Kidney Transplantation in a Phase 3 Trial

Patient Race

Patients Who Developed PTDM a

Tacrolimus

Cyclosporine

Black

15/41 (37%)

3 (8%)

Hispanic

5/17 (29%)

1 (6%)

Caucasian

10/82 (12%)

1 (1%)

Other

0/11 (0%)

1 (10%)

Total

30/151 (20%)

6 (4%)

a Use of insulin for 30 or more consecutive days, with < 5 day gap, without a prior history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

Liver Transplant

Insulin-dependent PTDM was reported in 18% and 11% of tacrolimus-treated liver transplant patients and was reversible in 45% and 31% of these patients at 1 year post-transplant, in the U.S. and European randomized trials, respectively, (Table 12). Hyperglycemia was associated with the use of tacrolimus in 47% and 33% of liver transplant recipients in the U.S. and European randomized trials, respectively, and may require treatment [see Adverse Reactions( 6.1)].

Table 12. Incidence of Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus and Insulin Use at 1 Year in Liver Transplant Recipients

Status of PTDM a

US Trial

European Trial

Tacrolimus

Cyclosporine

Tacrolimus

Cyclosporine

Patients at risk b

239

236

239

249

New Onset PTDM a table 12

42 (18%)

30 (13%)

26 (11%)

12 (5%)

Patients still on insulin at 1 year

23 (10%)

19 (8%)

18 (8%)

6 (2%)

a Use of insulin for 30 or more consecutive days, with < 5 day gap, without a prior history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

b Patients without pre-transplant history of diabetes mellitus.

Heart Transplant

Insulin-dependent PTDM was reported in 13% and 22% of tacrolimus-treated heart transplant patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or azathioprine (AZA) and was reversible in 30% and 17% of these patients at one year post-transplant, in the U.S. and European randomized trials, respectively (Table 13). Hyperglycemia defined as two fasting plasma glucose levels ≥126 mg/dL was reported with the use of tacrolimus plus MMF or AZA in 32% and 35% of heart transplant recipients in the U.S. and European randomized trials, respectively, and may require treatment [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.1)].

Table 13. Incidence of Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus and Insulin Use at 1 Year in Heart Transplant Recipients

Status of PTDM a

US Trial

European Trial

Tacrolimus/MMF

Cyclosporine/MMF

Tacrolimus/AZA

Cyclosporine/AZA

Patients at risk b

75

83

132

138

New Onset PTDM a

10 (13%)

6 (7%)

29 (22%)

5 (4%)

Patients still on insulin at 1 year c

7 (9%)

1 (1%)

24 (18%)

4 (3%)

a Use of insulin for 30 or more consecutive days without a prior history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

b Patients without pre-transplant history of diabetes mellitus.

c 7-12 months for the U.S. trial.

Less Frequently Reported Adverse Reactions (>3% and <15%)

The following adverse reactions were reported in either liver, kidney, and/or heart transplant recipients who were treated with tacrolimus in clinical trials.

Nervous System [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.8)]

Abnormal dreams, agitation, amnesia, anxiety, confusion, convulsion, crying, depression, elevated mood, emotional lability, encephalopathy, haemorrhagic stroke, hallucinations, hypertonia, incoordination, monoparesis, myoclonus, nerve compression, nervousness, neuralgia, neuropathy, paralysis flaccid, psychomotor skills impaired, psychosis, quadriparesis, somnolence, thinking abnormal, vertigo, writing impaired

Special Senses

Abnormal vision, amblyopia, ear pain, otitis media, tinnitus

Gastrointestinal

Cholangitis, cholestatic jaundice, duodenitis, dysphagia, esophagitis, flatulence, gastritis, gastroesophagitis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, GGT increase, GI disorder, GI perforation, hepatitis, hepatitis granulomatous, ileus, increased appetite, jaundice, liver damage, oesophagitis ulcerative, oral moniliasis, pancreatic pseudocyst, rectal disorder, stomatitis

Cardiovascular

Abnormal ECG, angina pectoris, arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, bradycardia, cardiac fibrillation, cardiopulmonary failure, cardiovascular disorder, congestive heart failure, deep thrombophlebitis, echocardiogram abnormal, electrocardiogram QRS complex abnormal, electrocardiogram ST segment abnormal, heart failure, heart rate decreased, hemorrhage, hypotension, peripheral vascular disorder, phlebitis, postural hypotension, syncope, tachycardia, thrombosis, vasodilatation

Urogenital

Acute kidney failure [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.7 )] , albuminuria, BK nephropathy, bladder spasm, cystitis, dysuria, hematuria, hydronephrosis, kidney failure, kidney tubular necrosis, nocturia, pyuria, toxic nephropathy, urge incontinence, urinary frequency, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, vaginitis

Metabolic/Nutritional

Acidosis, alkaline phosphatase increased, alkalosis, ALT (SGPT) increased, AST (SGOT) increased, bicarbonate decreased, bilirubinemia, dehydration, GGT increased, gout, healing abnormal, hypercalcemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperuricemia, hypervolemia, hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hypoproteinemia, lactic dehydrogenase increase, weight gain

Endocrine

Cushing’s syndrome

Hemic/Lymphatic

Coagulation disorder, ecchymosis, haematocrit increased, haemoglobin abnormal, hypochromic anemia, leukocytosis, polycythemia, prothrombin decreased, serum iron decreased

Miscellaneous

Abdomen enlarged, abscess, accidental injury, allergic reaction, cellulitis, chills, fall, feeling abnormal, flu syndrome, generalized edema, hernia, mobility decreased, peritonitis, photosensitivity reaction, sepsis, temperature intolerance, ulcer

Musculoskeletal

Arthralgia, cramps, generalized spasm, joint disorder, leg cramps, myalgia, myasthenia, osteoporosis

Respiratory

Asthma, emphysema, hiccups, lung disorder, lung function decreased, pharyngitis, pneumonia, pneumothorax, pulmonary edema, respiratory disorder, rhinitis, sinusitis, voice alteration

Skin

Acne, alopecia, exfoliative dermatitis, fungal dermatitis, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, hirsutism, neoplasm skin benign, skin discoloration, skin disorder, skin ulcer, sweating

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