TAGRISSO (Page 4 of 8)

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Osimertinib is a kinase inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which binds irreversibly to certain mutant forms of EGFR (T790M, L858R, and exon 19 deletions) at approximately 9-fold lower concentrations than wild‑type. Two pharmacologically-active metabolites (AZ7550 and AZ5104 circulating at approximately 10% of the parent) with similar inhibitory profiles to osimertinib have been identified in the plasma after oral administration of osimertinib. AZ7550 showed a similar potency to osimertinib, while AZ5104 showed greater potency against exon 19 deletion and T790M mutants (approximately 8-fold) and wild-type (approximately 15-fold) EGFR. In vitro , osimertinib also inhibited the activity of HER2, HER3, HER4, ACK1, and BLK at clinically relevant concentrations.

In cultured cells and animal tumor implantation models, osimertinib exhibited anti-tumor activity against NSCLC lines harboring EGFR-mutations (T790M/L858R, L858R, T790M/exon 19 deletion, and exon 19 deletion) and, to a lesser extent, wild-type EGFR amplifications. Osimertinib distributed to the brain in multiple animal species (monkey, rat, and mouse) with brain to plasma AUC ratios of approximately 2 following oral dosing. These data are consistent with observations of tumor regression and increased survival in osimertinib- versus control-treated animals in a pre-clinical mutant-EGFR intracranial mouse metastasis xenograft model (PC9; exon 19 deletion).

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

Based on an analysis of dose-exposure response relationships over the dose range of 20 mg (0.25 times the recommended dose) to 240 mg (3 times the recommended dose), no apparent relationship between osimertinib exposure and overall response rate, duration of response and progression-free survival was identified; however, there were limited data available at the 20 mg dose. Over the same dose range, increased exposure led to increased probability of adverse reactions, specifically rash, diarrhea and ILD.

Cardiac Electrophysiology

The QTc interval prolongation potential of osimertinib was assessed in 210 patients who received TAGRISSO 80 mg daily in AURA2. A central tendency analysis of the QTcF data at steady-state demonstrated that the maximum mean change from baseline was 16.2 msec (upper bound of two-sided 90% confidence interval (CI) 17.6 msec). A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis in AURA2 suggested a concentration-dependent QTc interval prolongation of 14 msec (upper bound of two-sided 90% CI: 16 msec) at a dose of TAGRISSO 80 mg.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximal plasma concentration (Cmax ) of osimertinib increased dose proportionally over 20 to 240 mg dose range (i.e., 0.25 to 3 times the recommended dosage) after oral administration and exhibited linear pharmacokinetics (PK). Administration of TAGRISSO orally once daily resulted in approximately 3-fold accumulation with steady-state exposures achieved after 15 days of dosing. At steady state, the Cmax to Cmin (minimal concentration) ratio was 1.6-fold.

Absorption

The median time to Cmax of osimertinib was 6 hours (range 3-24 hours).

Following administration of a 20 mg TAGRISSO tablet with a high-fat, high-calorie meal (containing approximately 58 grams of fat and 1000 calories), the Cmax and AUC of osimertinib were comparable to that under fasting conditions.

Distribution

The mean volume of distribution at steady-state (Vss /F) of osimertinib was 918 L. Plasma protein binding of osimertinib was 95%.

Elimination

Osimertinib plasma concentrations decreased with time and a population estimated mean half-life of osimertinib was 48 hours, and oral clearance (CL/F) was 14.3 (L/h).

Metabolism

The main metabolic pathways of osimertinib were oxidation (predominantly CYP3A) and dealkylation in vitro. Two pharmacologically active metabolites (AZ7550 and AZ5104) have been identified in the plasma after TAGRISSO oral administration. The geometric mean exposure (AUC) of each metabolite (AZ5104 and AZ7550) was approximately 10% of the exposure of osimertinib at steady-state.

Excretion

Osimertinib is primarily eliminated in the feces (68%) and to a lesser extent in the urine (14%). Unchanged osimertinib accounted for approximately 2% of the elimination.

Specific Populations

No clinically significant differences in the pharmacokinetics of osimertinib were observed based on age, sex, ethnicity, body weight, baseline albumin, line of therapy, smoking status, renal function (creatinine clearance (CLcr) ≥15 mL/min by Cockcroft-Gault), or hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh A and B, or total bilirubin ≤ ULN and AST > ULN or total bilirubin between 1 to 3 times ULN and any AST). The pharmacokinetics of osimertinib in patients with end-stage renal disease (CLcr <15 mL/min) or severe hepatic impairment (total bilirubin 3 to 10 times ULN and any AST) are unknown [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6) and (8.7)].

Drug Interaction Studies

Effect of Other Drugs on TAGRISSO in Clinical Pharmacokinetic Studies Strong CYP3A Inducers: The steady-state AUC of osimertinib was reduced by 78% in patients when co-administered with rifampin (600 mg daily for 21 days) [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].

Strong CYP3A Inhibitors: Co-administering TAGRISSO with 200 mg itraconazole twice daily (a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor) had no clinically significant effect on the exposure of osimertinib (AUC increased by 24% and Cmax decreased by 20%).

Gastric Acid Reducing Agents: The exposure of osimertinib was not affected by concurrent administration of a single 80 mg TAGRISSO tablet following 40 mg omeprazole administration for 5 days.

Effect of Osimertinib on Other Drugs in Clinical Pharmacokinetic Studies

BCRP substrates: Co-administering TAGRISSO with rosuvastatin (a BCRP substrate) increased rosuvastatin AUC by 35% and Cmax by 72% [see Drug Interactions (7.2)].

P-gp substrates: Co-administering TAGRISSO with fexofenadine (a P-gp substrate) increased fexofenadine AUC and Cmax by 56% and 76% after a single dose and 27% and 25% at steady state, respectively.

CYP3A4 substrates: Co-administering TAGRISSO with simvastatin (a CYP3A4 substrate) had no clinically significant effect on the exposure of simvastatin.

In Vitro Studies

CYP450 Metabolic Pathways: Osimertinib does not inhibit CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 2E1. Osimertinib induced CYP1A2 enzymes.

Transporter Systems: Osimertinib is a substrate of P-glycoprotein and BCRP and is not a substrate of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. Osimertinib is an inhibitor of BCRP and does not inhibit OAT1, OAT3, OATP1B1, OATP1B3, MATE1, MATE2K and OCT2.

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Osimertinib showed no carcinogenic potential when administered orally to rasH2 transgenic mice for 26 weeks. Osimertinib did not cause genetic damage in in vitro and in vivo assays.

Based on studies in animals, male fertility may be impaired by treatment with TAGRISSO. Degenerative changes were present in the testes in rats and dogs exposed to osimertinib for 1 month or more with evidence of reversibility in the rat. Following administration of osimertinib to rats for approximately 10 weeks at a dose of 40 mg/kg, at exposures 0.5 times the AUC observed at the recommended clinical dose of 80 mg once daily, there was a reduction in male fertility, demonstrated by increased pre-implantation loss in untreated females mated to treated males.

Based on studies in animals, female fertility may be impaired by treatment with TAGRISSO. In repeat dose toxicity studies, histological evidence of anestrus, corpora lutea degeneration in the ovaries and epithelial thinning in the uterus and vagina were seen in rats exposed to osimertinib for 1 month or more at exposures 0.3 times the AUC observed at the recommended clinical dose of 80 mg once daily. Findings in the ovaries seen following 1 month of dosing exhibited evidence of reversibility. In a female fertility study in rats, administration of osimertinib from 2 weeks prior to mating through Day 8 of gestation at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day (approximately 1.5 times the Cmax at the recommended dose of 80 mg once daily) had no effects on estrous cycling or the number of females becoming pregnant, but caused early embryonic deaths. These findings showed evidence of reversibility when females were mated 1 month after treatment discontinuation.

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