Tamoxifen Citrate

TAMOXIFEN CITRATE- tamoxifen citrate tablet, film coated
McKesson Corporation dba SKY Packaging

WARNING

For Women With Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) and Women at High Risk for Breast Cancer

Serious and life-threatening events associated with tamoxifen in the risk reduction setting (women at high risk for cancer and women with DCIS) include uterine malignancies, stroke and pulmonary embolism. Incidence rates for these events were estimated from the NSABP P-1 trial (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY , Clinical Studies , Reduction in Breast Cancer Incidence in High Risk Women). Uterine malignancies consist of both endometrial adenocarcinoma (incidence rate per 1,000 women-years of 2.20 for tamoxifen vs. 0.71 for placebo) and uterine sarcoma (incidence rate per 1,000 women-years of 0.17 for tamoxifen vs. 0.4 for placebo)*. For stroke, the incidence rate per 1,000 women-years was 1.43 for tamoxifen vs. 1.00 for placebo**. For pulmonary embolism, the incidence rate per 1,000 women-years was 0.75 for tamoxifen versus 0.25 for placebo**.

Some of the strokes, pulmonary emboli, and uterine malignancies were fatal.

Health care providers should discuss the potential benefits versus the potential risks of these serious events with women at high risk of breast cancer and women with DCIS considering tamoxifen to reduce their risk of developing breast cancer.

The benefits of tamoxifen outweigh its risks in women already diagnosed with breast cancer.

* Updated long-term follow-up data (median length of follow-up is 6.9 years) from NSABP P-1 study. See WARNINGS , Effects on the Uterus-Endometrial Cancer and Uterine Sarcoma.

** See Table 3 under CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY , Clinical Studies.

DESCRIPTION

Tamoxifen citrate tablets USP, a nonsteroidal antiestrogen, are for oral administration. Each tablet contains 10 mg or 20 mg tamoxifen (equivalent to 15.2 mg or 30.4 mg, respectively, of tamoxifen citrate, USP).

Each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: croscarmellose sodium, hypromellose, lactose (monohydrate), magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol 400, povidone, corn starch, and titanium dioxide.

Chemically, tamoxifen is the trans-isomer of a triphenylethylene derivative. The chemical name is (Z)2-[4-(1,2-diphenyl-1-butenyl)phenoxy]- N ,N -dimethylethanamine 2-hydroxy-1,2,3- propanetricarboxylate (1:1). The structural formula, empirical formula, and molecular weight are as follows:

Structural formula for tamoxifen
(click image for full-size original)

C32 H37 NO8 M.W. 563.62

Tamoxifen citrate has a pKa’ of 8.85, the equilibrium solubility in water at 37°C is 0.5 mg/mL and in 0.02 N HCl at 37°C, it is 0.2 mg/mL.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Tamoxifen citrate is a nonsteroidal agent that has demonstrated potent antiestrogenic properties in animal test systems. The antiestrogenic effects may be related to its ability to compete with estrogen for binding sites in target tissues such as breast. Tamoxifen inhibits the induction of rat mammary carcinoma induced by dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) and causes the regression of already established DMBA-induced tumors. In this rat model, tamoxifen appears to exert its antitumor effects by binding the estrogen receptors.

In cytosols derived from human breast adenocarcinomas, tamoxifen competes with estradiol for estrogen receptor protein.

Absorption and Distribution

Following a single oral dose of 20 mg tamoxifen, an average peak plasma concentration of 40 ng/mL (range 35 to 45 ng/mL) occurred approximately 5 hours after dosing. The decline in plasma concentrations of tamoxifen is biphasic with a terminal elimination half-life of about 5 to 7 days. The average peak plasma concentration of N-desmethyl tamoxifen is 15 ng/mL (range 10 to 20 ng/mL). Chronic administration of 10 mg tamoxifen given twice daily for 3 months to patients results in average steady-state plasma concentrations of 120 ng/mL (range 67 to 183 ng/mL) for tamoxifen and 336 ng/mL (range 148 to 654 ng/mL) for N-desmethyl tamoxifen. The average steady-state plasma concentrations of tamoxifen and N-desmethyl tamoxifen after administration of 20 mg tamoxifen once daily for 3 months are 122 ng/mL (range 71 to 183 ng/mL) and 353 ng/mL (range 152 to 706 ng/mL), respectively. After initiation of therapy, steady-state concentrations for tamoxifen are achieved in about 4 weeks and steady-state concentrations for N-desmethyl tamoxifen are achieved in about 8 weeks, suggesting a half-life of approximately 14 days for this metabolite. In a steady-state, crossover study of 10 mg tamoxifen citrate tablets given twice a day vs. a 20 mg tamoxifen citrate tablet given once daily, the 20 mg tamoxifen citrate tablet was bioequivalent to the 10 mg tamoxifen citrate tablets.

Metabolism

Tamoxifen is extensively metabolized after oral administration. N-desmethyl tamoxifen is the major metabolite found in patients’ plasma. The biological activity of N-desmethyl tamoxifen appears to be similar to that of tamoxifen. 4-Hydroxytamoxifen and a side chain primary alcohol derivative of tamoxifen have been identified as minor metabolites in plasma. Tamoxifen is a substrate of cytochrome P-450 3A, 2C9 and 2D6, and an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein.

Excretion

Studies in women receiving 20 mg of 14 C tamoxifen have shown that approximately 65% of the administered dose was excreted from the body over a period of 2 weeks with fecal excretion as the primary route of elimination. The drug is excreted mainly as polar conjugates, with unchanged drug and unconjugated metabolites accounting for less than 30% of the total fecal radioactivity.

Special Populations

The effects of age, gender and race on the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen have not been determined. The effects of reduced liver function on the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen have not been determined.

Pediatric Patients

The pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen and N-desmethyl tamoxifen were characterized using a population pharmacokinetic analysis with sparse samples per patient obtained from 27 female pediatric patients aged 2 to 10 years enrolled in a study designed to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen in treating McCune-Albright syndrome. Rich data from two tamoxifen citrate pharmacokinetic trials in which 59 postmenopausal women with breast cancer completed the studies were included in the analysis to determine the structural pharmacokinetic model for tamoxifen. A one-compartment model provided the best fit to the data.

In pediatric patients, an average steady-state peak plasma concentration (Css, max ) and AUC were of 187 ng/mL and 4,110 ng hr/mL, respectively, and Css, max occurred approximately 8 hours after dosing. Clearance (CL/F) as body weight adjusted in female pediatric patients was approximately 2.3 fold higher than in female breast cancer patients. In the youngest cohort of female pediatric patients (2 to 6 year olds), CL/F was 2.6 fold higher; in the oldest cohort (7 to 10.9 year olds) CL/F was approximately 1.9 fold higher. Exposure to N-desmethyl tamoxifen was comparable between the pediatric and adult patients. The safety and efficacy of tamoxifen for girls aged 2 to 10 years with McCune-Albright syndrome and precocious puberty have not been studied beyond one year of treatment. The long-term effects of tamoxifen therapy in girls have not been established. In adults treated with tamoxifen an increase in incidence of uterine malignancies, stroke and pulmonary embolism has been noted (see BOXED WARNING).

Drug-Drug Interactions

In vitro studies showed that erythromycin, cyclosporin, nifedipine and diltiazem competitively inhibited formation of N-desmethyl tamoxifen with apparent K1 of 20, 1, 45 and 30 µM, respectively. The clinical significance of these in vitro studies is unknown.

Tamoxifen reduced the plasma concentration of letrozole by 37% when these drugs were coadministered. Rifampin, a cytochrome P-450 3A4 inducer reduced tamoxifen AUC and Cmax by 86% and 55%, respectively. Aminoglutethimide reduces tamoxifen and N-desmethyl tamoxifen plasma concentrations. Medroxyprogesterone reduces plasma concentrations of N-desmethyl, but not tamoxifen.

In the anastrozole adjuvant trial, coadministration of anastrozole and tamoxifen in breast cancer patients reduced anastrozole plasma concentration by 27% compared to those achieved with anastrozole alone; however, the coadministration did not affect the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen or N-desmethyltamoxifen (see PRECAUTIONS , Drug Interactions). Tamoxifen should not be coadministered with anastrozole.

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