Aliskiren: Do not co-administer aliskiren with telmisartan in patients with diabetes. Avoid use of aliskiren with telmisartan in patients with renal impairment (GFR <60 mL/min).
Digoxin: When telmisartan was co-administered with digoxin, median increases in digoxin peak plasma concentration (49%) and in trough concentration (20%) were observed. Therefore, monitor digoxin levels when initiating, adjusting, and discontinuing telmisartan for the purpose of keeping the digoxin level within the therapeutic range.
Lithium: Reversible increases in serum lithium concentrations and toxicity have been reported during concomitant administration of lithium with angiotensin II receptor antagonists including telmisartan. Therefore, monitor serum lithium levels during concomitant use.
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors): In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, co-administration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including telmisartan, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving telmisartan and NSAID therapy.
The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including telmisartan may be attenuated by NSAIDs including selective COX-2 inhibitors.
Telmisartan can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death (see Clinical Considerations). Most epidemiologic studies examining fetal abnormalities after exposure to antihypertensive use in the first trimester have not distinguished drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system from other antihypertensive agents. Studies in rats and rabbits with telmisartan showed fetotoxicity only at maternally toxic doses (see Data). When pregnancy is detected, discontinue telmisartan as soon as possible.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk
Hypertension in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, premature delivery, and delivery complications (e.g., need for cesarean section, and post-partum hemorrhage). Hypertension increases the fetal risk for intrauterine growth restriction and intrauterine death. Pregnant women with hypertension should be carefully monitored and managed accordingly.
Fetal/Neonatal adverse reactions
Use of drugs that act on the RAS in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy can result in the following: oligohydramnios, reduced fetal renal function leading to anuria and renal failure, fetal lung hypoplasia, skeletal deformations, including skull hypoplasia, hypotension, and death. In the unusual case that there is no appropriate alternative to therapy with drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system for a particular patient, apprise the mother of the potential risk to the fetus.
In patients taking telmisartan during pregnancy, perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intra-amniotic environment. Fetal testing may be appropriate, based on the week of gestation. If oligohydramnios is observed, discontinue telmisartan, unless it is considered lifesaving for the mother. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury.
Closely observe infants with histories of in utero exposure to telmisartan for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia. If oliguria or hypotension occurs, support blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].
No teratogenic effects were observed when telmisartan was administered to pregnant rats at oral doses of up to 50 mg/kg/day and to pregnant rabbits at oral doses up to 45 mg/kg/day. In rabbits, embryolethality associated with maternal toxicity (reduced body weight gain and food consumption) was observed at 45 mg/kg/day [about 12 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 80 mg on a mg/m2 basis]. In rats, maternally toxic (reduction in body weight gain and food consumption) telmisartan doses of 15 mg/kg/day (about 1.9 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis), administered during late gestation and lactation, were observed to produce adverse effects in neonates, including reduced viability, low birth weight, delayed maturation, and decreased weight gain. The no observed effect doses for developmental toxicity in rats and rabbits, 5 and 15 mg/kg/day, respectively, are about 0.64 and 3.7 times, on a mg/m2 basis, the maximum recommended human dose of telmisartan (80 mg/day).
There is no information regarding the presence of telmisartan in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Telmisartan is present in the milk of lactating rats (see Data). Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in the breastfed infant including hypotension, hyperkalemia and renal impairment, advise a nursing woman not to breastfeed during treatment with telmisartan.
Telmisartan was present in the milk of lactating rats at concentrations 1.5 to 2 times those found in plasma from 4 to 8 hours after administration.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Neonates with a history of in utero exposure to telmisartan:
If oliguria or hypotension occurs, support blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function.
Of the total number of patients receiving telmisartan in hypertension clinical studies, 551 (19%) were 65 to 74 years of age and 130 (4%) were 75 years or older. No overall differences in effectiveness and safety were observed in these patients compared to younger patients and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
Monitor carefully and uptitrate slowly in patients with biliary obstructive disorders or hepatic insufficiency [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Limited data are available with regard to overdosage in humans. The most likely manifestation of overdosage with telmisartan tablets would be hypotension, dizziness and tachycardia; bradycardia could occur from parasympathetic (vagal) stimulation. If symptomatic hypotension should occur, supportive treatment should be instituted. Telmisartan is not removed by hemodialysis.
Telmisartan is a non-peptide angiotensin II receptor (type AT1 ) antagonist.
Telmisartan is chemically described as 4′-[(1,4′-dimethyl-2′-propyl [2,6′-bi-1H-benzimidazol]-1′-yl)methyl]-[1,1′-biphenyl]-2-carboxylic acid. Its empirical formula is C33 H30 N4 O2 , its molecular weight is 514.63, and its structural formula is:
Telmisartan, USP is a white to slightly yellowish solid. It is practically insoluble in water and in the pH range of 3 to 9, sparingly soluble in strong acid (except insoluble in hydrochloric acid), and soluble in strong base.
Telmisartan, USP is available as tablets for oral administration, containing 20 mg, 40 mg or 80 mg of telmisartan, USP. The tablets contain the following inactive ingredients: magnesium stearate, mannitol, meglumine, povidone, sodium hydroxide and talc.
Telmisartan tablets, USP are hygroscopic and require protection from moisture.
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