Drugs, including telmisartan, that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system can cause hyperkalemia, particularly in patients with renal insufficiency, diabetes, or combination use with other angiotensin receptor blockers or ACE inhibitors and the concomitant use of other drugs that raise serum potassium levels [see Drug Interactions (7.1,7.4)].
Hydrochlorothiazide can cause hypokalemia and hyponatremia. Thiazides have been shown to increase the urinary excretion of magnesium; this may result in hypomagnesemia. Hypomagnesemia can result in hypokalemia which may be difficult to treat despite potassium repletion. Monitor serum electrolytes periodically.
In controlled trials using the telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination treatment, no patient administered 40 mg/12.5 mg, 80 mg/12.5 mg, or 80 mg/25 mg experienced a decrease in potassium ≥1.4 mEq/L, and no patient experienced hyperkalemia.
Hydrochlorothiazide decreases urinary calcium excretion and may cause elevations of serum calcium.
Hydrochlorothiazide may alter glucose tolerance and raise serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides.
Hyperuricemia may occur or frank gout may be precipitated in certain patients receiving thiazide therapy. Because telmisartan decreases uric acid, telmisartan in combination with hydrochlorothiazide attenuates the diuretic-induced hyperuricemia.
Hypersensitivity reactions to hydrochlorothiazide may occur in patients with or without a history of allergy or bronchial asthma, but are more likely in patients with such a history [see Contraindications (4)].
Hydrochlorothiazide, a sulfonamide, can cause an idiosyncratic reaction, resulting in acute transient myopia and acute angle-closure glaucoma. Symptoms include acute onset of decreased visual acuity or ocular pain and typically occur within hours to weeks of drug initiation. Untreated acute angle-closure glaucoma can lead to permanent vision loss. The primary treatment is to discontinue hydrochlorothiazide as rapidly as possible. Prompt medical or surgical treatments may need to be considered if the intraocular pressure remains uncontrolled. Risk factors for developing acute angle-closure glaucoma may include a history of sulfonamide or penicillin allergy.
- Hypotension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
- Renal Impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
- Electrolytes and Metabolic Disorders [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide tablets have been evaluated for safety in more than 1700 patients, including 716 treated for hypertension for longer than 6 months and 420 for more than 1 year. Adverse reactions have been limited to those that have been previously reported with telmisartan and/or hydrochlorothiazide.
Adverse reactions occurring at an incidence of ≥2% in patients treated with telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide and at a greater rate than in patients treated with placebo, are presented in Table 1 [see Clinical Studies (14)].
* includes all doses of telmisartan (20 to 160 mg), hydrochlorothiazide (6.25 to 25 mg), and combinations thereof
|Telmisartan/ Hydrochlorothiazide (n = 414)||Placebo (n = 74)||Telmisartan (n = 209)||Hydrochlorothiazide (n = 121)|
|Body as a whole Fatigue||3%||1%||3%||3%|
|Central/peripheral nervous system Dizziness||5%||1%||4%||6%|
|Gastrointestinal system Diarrhea||3%||0%||5%||2 %|
|Respiratory system disorder Sinusitis||4%||3%||3%||6%|
|Upper respiratory tract infection||8%||7%||7%||10%|
Adverse reactions occurred at approximately the same rates in men and women, older and younger patients, and black and non-black patients.
Other adverse events that have been reported with telmisartan are listed below:
Autonomic Nervous System: impotence, increased sweating, flushing
Body as a Whole: allergy, fever, leg pain, chest pain
Cardiovascular: palpitation, angina pectoris, abnormal ECG, hypertension, peripheral edema
Central Nervous System: insomnia, somnolence, migraine, paresthesia, involuntary muscle contractions, hypoesthesia
Gastrointestinal: flatulence, constipation, gastritis, dry mouth, hemorrhoids, gastroesophageal reflux, toothache
Hepato-biliary: elevations of liver enzymes or serum bilirubin
Metabolic: gout, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus
Musculoskeletal: arthritis, arthralgia, leg cramps, myalgia
Psychiatric: anxiety, depression, nervousness
Resistance Mechanism: infection, abscess, otitis media
Respiratory: asthma, rhinitis, dyspnea, epistaxis
Skin: dermatitis, eczema, pruritus
Urinary: micturition frequency, cystitis
Vascular: cerebrovascular disorder
Special Senses: abnormal vision, conjunctivitis, tinnitus, earache
Other adverse events that have been reported with hydrochlorothiazide are listed below:
Body as a Whole: weakness
Digestive: pancreatitis, jaundice (intrahepatic cholestatic jaundice), sialadenitis, cramping, gastric irritation
Hematologic: aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, leukopenia, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia
Hypersensitivity: purpura, photosensitivity, urticaria, necrotizing angiitis (vasculitis and cutaneous vasculitis), fever, respiratory distress including pneumonitis and pulmonary edema, anaphylactic reactions
Metabolic: hyperglycemia, glycosuria
Musculoskeletal: muscle spasm
Nervous System/Psychiatric: restlessness
Renal: interstitial nephritis
Skin: erythema multiforme including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, exfoliative dermatitis including toxic epidermal necrolysis
Special Senses: transient blurred vision, xanthopsia
Clinical Laboratory Findings
Creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN): Increases in BUN (≥11.2 mg/dL) and serum creatinine (≥0.5 mg/dL) were observed in 2.8% and 1.4%, respectively, of patients with essential hypertension treated with telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide tablets in controlled trials. No patient discontinued treatment with telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide tablets because of an increase in BUN or creatinine [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
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